Nine Selected and Revised Papers from the Bari Conference

unscheduled decision to select 9 the above contributions for revision
and publication in the SHS Web of Conferences


imageA special open access collection of nine selected and revised papers from the 2014 Workshop on Advances in the Turin Shroud Investigation (ATSI 2014) in Bari, Italy, September 4–5, 2014 

Why nine?  Read the following from the preface to the collection:

… Of the 30 contributions submitted to peer review, only 19 was accepted for presentation and discussion during the workshop. The Official Program for this two-day forum is reported in Later, the Major Chairpersons made the unscheduled decision to select 9 of the above contributions in order for them to be re-examined with a view to a possible publication on SHS Web of Conferences. The reference Authors of each of the 9 selected papers were asked to revise their papers taking into account comments and questions raised both after presentations and during informal discussions through the workshop. Finally, the revised papers were submitted to a second round of peer-review and modified according to Reviewers’ remarks.

This restricted collection of papers essentially cover a number of topics distinctive of the Turin Shroud (TS) studies, notably in-situ and laboratory investigation on TS-like electrostatic imaging; micro-scale optical observation and macro-scale reproduction; TS coloration, conservation and pattern perception; commonalities and coincidences with the Oviedo Sudarium; archaeological survey on funerary textiles in ancient Israel with a comparison with the TS; historiographical contribution to the debated question of the burial cloths reported in the Gospel account for the benefit of related applications, e.g. Liturgy and Iconography


19 thoughts on “Nine Selected and Revised Papers from the Bari Conference”

  1. All very interesting.
    But no one has used advanced microscopy,
    scanning probe microscopies (SPMs) …
    (apart the “Opto-chemical analysis” with ATR-FTIR, then see the paper by Fanti:
    “Optical features of flax fibers coming from the Turin Shroud”, link: )

    PLM (Polarized Light Microscopy) and IR Raman analysis (see the same paper by prof. Fanti) are very useful, but we cannot obtain the same results that we can reach using SPMs !

    — — —
    For instance,
    here what I have found about AFM and SNOM:
    “Opto-mechanical probe for combining atomic force microscopy
    and optical near-field surface analysis”
    Camiel Van Hoorn (VU University Amsterdam) and other researchers

    Optics Letters 08/2014; 39(16):4800. DOI: 10.1364/OL.39.004800

    Here an excerpt from the Abstract:

    >We have developed a new easy-to-use probe that can be used to combine atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). We show that, using this device, the evanescent field, obtained by total internal reflection conditions in a prism, can be visualized by approaching the surface with the scanning tip. Fur-thermore, we were able to obtain simultaneous AFM and SNOM images of a standard test grating in air and in liquid.
    >The lateral resolution in AFM and SNOM mode was estimated to be 45 and 160 nm, respectively.
    >This new probe overcomes a number of limitations that commercial probes have, while yielding the same resolution. © 2014 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2310)

    Fiber optics; (180.4243) Near-field microscopy; (180.5810) Scanning microscopy; (060.2370) Fiber optics sensors. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) instruments are widely recognized as valuable tools for characterizing physical, chemical, electrical, electrochemical, and optical properties of materials at the nanometer scale.
    >Atomic force microscopy (AFM), for example, is routinely used to map the surface topography with a resolu-tion well beyond the optical limit, both in gaseous and liquid environments
    >By replacing the standard AFM cantilever with a tipped glass fiber, one can then equip the instrument with scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) capabilities. The latter can provide information on the optical field emerging from the sur-face of the sample with a lateral resolution of a few tens of nanometers.
    >The combination of AFM and SNOM has found applications in many fields, including cell biology and single molecule experiments.
    >Unfortunately, current AFM – SNOM probes come with some limitations. In the most widely used setups, the scanning fiber is glued to one of the two prongs of a piezoelectric tuning fork that cannot be immersed in conductive liquids
    >To obtain an image of a solid sur-face in a liquid environment, one thus needs to ensure the tuning fork is kept out of the immersion bath
    > In this configuration, the meniscus of the liquid on the fiber may influence the performance of the probe. Furthermore, tuning forks cannot be used in contact with the sample, hampering any possibility to perform contact mode scan-ning. This restriction can be overcome by replacing the probe with a tipped fiber bent in the form of a cantilever.
    >The position of the cantilever can then be monitored via an optical triangulation readout
    >Alternatively, a standard silicon AFM cantilever can be modified for near-field imaging by making a small hole at the tip apex
    >These configurations also facilitate experiments in liquids, but add the nuisance of the alignment procedure of the readout, which becomes even more tedious when the probe is immersed in a fluid.
    >In an earlier attempt to solve these technical issues, in 2001, Minh et al. presented a probe that could detect the SNOM signal via a hollow micromachined cantilever glued on top of an optical fiber
    >In 2011, we proposed to skip the gluing step by directly carving the cantilever out of the cleaved end of the fiber, which also adds the possibility to measure the cantilever deflection using fiber interferometry. In that experiment we showed that fiber-top probes can collect the SNOM signal throughout an entire AFM indentation stroke.
    >In 2006, that approach, today known as fiber-top technology, had already been used successfully for AFM imaging.
    >However, the manufacturing procedure of both Ming’s and our fiber-coupled cantilevers is still rather complex.
    >In this Letter, we propose to approach this problem via a new probe based on ferrule-top technology. … … …

    1. I want to clarify:
      Obviously ATR-FTIR is not a scanning probe microscopy…
      — —
      If you want to improve the knowledges there is the following link:

      >… …In 2007, AFM was combined with infrared attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy to study the dissolution process of urea in a cyclohexane/butanol solution with a high spatial resolution.

      and there is the following way:
      > AFM/FTIR setup
      >Spatial resolution
      >The spatial resolution of an AFM/FTIR instrument is related to the contact area between the probe and sample
      But, typically, an AFM/FTIR has a resolution of “only” 50–400 nm, for example, 100 nm…

      1. Sorry… Yesterday I was quite finished off topic because I had some thoughts on my mind focused elsewhere (= the burial of Boris Nemtsov, etc.).
        — — —
        Today I have found another vague link …
        Here you can read some intervention on AFM (atomic force microscopy) for advanced textiles development :

        However, even this reference is too vague, only serves to be able to discuss something in very vague terms.
        — — —
        What mainly interested me were the measurements on the degree of polymerization of the cellulose by the use of AFM techniques.

  2. Here a vague example of study with AFM and FTIR controls:

    Effects of enzymatic treatments on surface morphology and chemical structure of linen fabrics
    B. Karaca, E. Bozacı, A. Demir, E. Ozdogan, and N. Seventekin

    >In previous studies; effects of enzymatic treatments on linen fabrics have been mostly investigated in terms of wettability, sorption properties, whiteness-yellowness index, and K/S values after dyeing.
    >However, surface chemistry and topography of enzyme-treated linen fabrics have not been reported enough. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of pectinase treatments on surface structure and chemical properties of greige linen fabrics by using instrumental techniques.
    >After enzymatic treatment, adequate removal of noncellulosic impurities from the fiber surface has been proved by AFM images and O1/C1 ratio of the treated surface.
    >Water drop test measurement and absorbance spectrographs of FTIR analysis have supported the results. It was observed that achievement in bioscouring is familiar to conventional alkaline scouring.
    © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012
    — — — *** — — —
    and here another interesting study:

    The Influence of Water Vapor Plasma Treatment
    on Specific Properties of Bleached and Mercerized Cotton Fabric
    Marija Gorjanc (University of Ljubljana) and other researchers


    >The influence of water vapor plasma on chemical, morphological and mechanical properties of bleached and mercerized cotton fabric was studied.
    >Reactive exhaust dyeing was used for loading of nano silver.
    >Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy results show that plasma treatment enhanced nano silver adhesion to the fabric, which also contributed to antimicrobial effectiveness to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Surface changes of plasma treated cotton were observed with scanning electron microscopy. Xray photoelectron spectroscopy results show the decrease of C—C bonds in favor of C—O, O—C—O, C=O, and O=C—O bonds and higher O/C atomic ratio in plasma treated fibers. Mechanical properties of cotton yarn after plasma treatment remained unchanged

    —- —
    Here a book (2014)
    by Chi-wai Kan:

    A Novel Green Treatment for Textiles: Plasma Treatment as a Sustainable Technology

    Industries worldwide have been impacted by environmental regulations, economics, and ultimately consumers, which has led to more thought about the development of sustainable products. The textile industry is no exception. The preparation, dyeing, and finishing of textile fibres requires large amounts of water and other chemicals which may be toxic or hazardous. Green chemistry along with other green technologies may now play a leading role in this process. This book emphasises the importance of plasma treatment as a green and sustainable technology.
    — —
    I believe you can also follow this way in order
    to observe what happens on linen fibrils…

    1. Here a curiousity.
      Yesterday, at home, I have found a paper about the PLM :
      “Determining the fibrillar orientation of bast fibres with polarized light microscopy:
      the modified Herzog test (red plate test) explained.”
      Haugan and Holst
      Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 252, Issue 2 – 2013, pp 159-168

      The spiral angle of the dominating layer is known as the fibrillar angle
      or twist angle of the fibre.
      That fibrillar orientation is a characteristic feature for species and
      then it’s useful as an aid for identification.
      Cotton is not a bast fibre with a well-defined fibrillar orientation.
      I remember the past problems (diffrences about cotton and weak linen
      [= mechanical treated and/or mechanical aged linen]) indicated by Heimburger…

      There are two previous studies (year = 2010)
      by Bergfjord and other researchers connected
      with the paper by Haugan & Holst.
      Here the titles :

      – A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy : flax. nettle/ramie, hemp and jute
      (Ultramicroscopy 110, 1192-1197)

      – Comment on “30 000 year-old wild flax fibers”
      (Science 328, 1634-b)
      Non è stato eseguito un lavoro decente per quanto riguarda
      le differenze del grado di corrugazione della parete cellulare

      I have not seen a careful study
      about the exact differences
      for the level of corrugation of PCW…
      this useful work can be done with an adequate and systematic control

      At the end the presence of mildew seems to be a problem
      about the precision of “alternative dating” (see also the use of AFM techniques).
      In other words : we have to be sure
      to choose the right material…

      1. I have just seen that italian words appeared…
        I beg your pardon.

        Here a rough translation
        = Did not run a decent job with respect
        the differences in the degree of corrugation of the cell wall…

        1. It seems to me that I have been a little too hard
          with my expression about the work done by prof. Fanti
          (and his assistants). Admittedly that the network of collaborators of Fanti (after years) has improved.
          See for instance: the help for Raman analyses, etc.

          Here an exact reference:
          >P. Tiberio,
          “Studio mediante spettroscopia Raman di fibre di lino da tessuti antichi” (Study by means of Raman spectroscopy of flax fibers from ancient textiles).
          Degree thesis, supervisors:
          Prof. Silvia Bruni, Giulio Fanti (external), Letizia Bomnizzoni and Nicola Ludwig, Milan
          University, Italy, A. Year 2012-2013

          B.T.W.: I tried to check the Web, but I have not found this study…

          Instead, Nicola Ludwig seems to be
          a “Researcher, Analytical Methods for the Study of Cultural Heritage”

          [But under the same name I have found a paper titled:
          “Skin temperature evaluation by infrared thermography: Comparison of image analysis methods”
          Perhaps there is another Nicola Ludwig…


          An excerpt from the Abstract:
          >Body temperature in medicine is a parameter indicating abnormal activity of human tissues; it is used to diagnose specific pathologies or as an indicator of the muscle activity during physical exercise.
          >Temperature measurements through infrared thermography have the advantages to be non-invasive and to record temperature data simultaneously from different points on a wide area of the body.
          >The difference between the values of temperature traditionally measured with contact probes or standard technique and the ones measured by thermal imaging lies in the fact that the first produces a scalar value, while the second gives a distribution over a surface. >The analysis of thermographic images … etc. …]
          — —
          Regarding the question of the corrugations (on linen fibrils) perhaps you can work according to the “histogram of the distribution of gray values in AFM images” or something similar …
          What do you think?

        2. Nanoscale Visualization seems to be the best way to proceed.
          These corrugations can be visualized by AFM scanning.

          I am curious about a question:
          Which is the exact level of instability for corrugations/wrinkling on irradiated linen fibrils?
          Is that question an hard point to solve or an easily problem to study?

        3. Erata corrige:
          >Is that question an hard point to solve or a problem to study easily?

          Instead of:
          >Is that question an hard point to solve or an easily problem to study?

          In my opinion there is the lack of a probabilistic model, capable to consider the effects on linen surface of different kind of radiation (that act on linen fibrils).

          Have you found an interesting study on that particular argument ?
          Perhaps you have also to consider the microfibril angle…
          — — —
          As you can see here we are far from Fazio and the previous strange (= Hildebrand, HSP, etc.) questions on volatile molecules …

          Here we want to consider the physical behavior of linen fibrils (and thin layer on linen fibrils…See also ageing and differences).
          Are we able to study (with an adequate approach) these questions?

  3. Out of only nine of the original thirty papers presented at Bari, it is curious that three of the papers selected all have Giuilo Fanti as a co-author. Given Prof Fanti’s known unproven contentious hypotheses re image formation, one might suspect some kind of selection bias. However, I note that the lead author of the first paper listed (on earthquake imaging) is by Giovanna de Liso. She spent at least some 12 years of field experimentation in the seismic zone of Piedmont. I believe that except for some experiments involving Volkringer patterns, she is the only one who has ever been successful in obtaining Shroud-like images from a natural cause, and I shall look forward to reading her paper with interest. However I fear that as a protegee of Prof Fanti, she may well have been captured by his theories, which I would consider unfortunate. I consider her work meritorious, and that it should be able to stand on its own feet, independently of other suspect contributions, which few other investigators outside of Padua consider credible.

    1. Gian Marco: See paper “Shroud-like image formation during seismic activity”; Giovanna de Liso; ENEA Frascati Conference May 2010.

      Click to access DeLisoWeb.pdf

      Author of that paper claimed to have carried out some 12 years of field experiments in the “slightly seismic region of West Piedmont”. The paper includes some pictures claiming to be Shroud-like images as a result of seismic activity, and some specific details concerning the related seismic events. Picture captions include citing EQ Oct-9-2000 M3.2; EQ Oct-27-2000 M VII, among others. PDF is secured, and attempts to transcribe any of her text are unsuccessful. As I indicated above, I am unaware of any other comparable images obtained by natural causes (excl Volkringer), She succeeded in obtaining the images only under very specific conditions which she identifies.

      1. Here in Italy we have long been acquainted with De Liso’s claims. I fear that even sindonologists (not to speak of the skeptics like me) have not given much attention to them.

      2. Why am I not surprised at the Italian neglect of De Liso’s work? But it is also evident elsewhere. New ideas challenge received wisdom and establishment myths. I recall that Nicolo Macchiavelli had noted just such a phenomenon. The Danish Niklaus Steno (1638-1686) father of stratigraphy and pioneer geologist, studied the rock strata in Italy, challenged a skeptical scientific community, became disillusioned with all the back-biting and acrimony among science and embraced religion instead. In Austria during the 19th century, rejection of Boltzman’s atomic theories found little support, driving him to suicide. Both Steno and Boltzman were the true pioneers.

        I find De Liso’s images intriguing, and it is disappointing that they have attracted so little attention. Clearly the challenge they give to received wisdom and other agendas is too large a step to attempt for lesser investigators.

  4. The article of Orit Shamir is very interesting. A dissident among sindonists is not very frequent in this kind of events. To know about the ulterior discussion would be more interesting yet, if such a thing took place.

    1. Last year the Archaeology Department at Wheaton College presented
      a lecture by Dr. Orit Shamir titled:
      “The Biblical Prohibition against Wearing Wool and Linen Woven Together.”
      (at 7 p.m. Monday, November 17, 2014)

      >Dr. Shamir is the curator of organic materials at the Israel Antiquities Authority. In her lecture, she will discuss artifacts from ancient Israel that provide insight into biblical laws outlined in chapter 22 of Deuteronomy.
      >This lecture is part of a fall series exploring the Hebrew Bible and artifacts from the ancient Near East in order to better understand society and technology in the biblical world. … …

      — — *** — —
      Now I need to intervene again in the topic:
      “Archaeology, AFM and new textile analyses”
      with the following few lines…

      Here’s a title that might be interesting for archaeological researches:
      “AFM analyses on Burial Textile from the First Century CE in Jerusalem
      Compared to Roman Textiles in the Land of Israel”…

      and (if you want) there is another title:

      “Quantitative analysis about the level of corrugation of PCW
      in linen fibrils of Turin Shroud and their non-destructive mechanical analyses
      [to improve the knowledges on ageing and BIF (= Body Image Formation)]”

      Which title do you prefer ?
      Maybe it will be too difficult to carry out the work
      involved (without having done something before) …

      What is your idea ?

  5. Here what seems to be a sort of key-question:
    Please, consider the water-retaining capacity of irradiated cellulose and the careful control of waterstains on Shroud of Turin before to speak on radiations in a vague manner (and here I am not referring directly to prof. Giulio Fanti but other researchers who have made particular claims).
    — —- —-

    Instead here I resume my more generic speech…

    Potential “workability” (… here it is a thing studied
    for linen fibrils control) and linen sample holder building.

    Although I don’t live in a strongly productive city (Shanghai, etc.)
    here, I can try to sketch very few lines about
    a fabrication procedure
    starting from the building block.
    I have read something about borosilicate glass,
    but I don’t believe too in that fragile material.
    (See, for example: “Ferrule-top atomic force microscope” by
    D. Chavan, G. Gruca, S. de Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector et al.;jsessionid=CD6DAB6A7D60AF257CF314D4A3A65588?sequence=1 )

    In other words: we have to verify if it’s possible to work using
    that frail structure (structura ad hoc facta = the structure
    was made for this control). …

    When we will work using Nano-SolidWorks (this is only a “low-fantasy name”),
    then we’ll obtain some interesting
    suspended rectangular hole carved to host
    linen fibrils during micro/nanomechanical tests.
    — — —
    In other words:
    the argument (didactical subject : with adequate developing)
    can be the following :

    “Building an atomic force microscope in school.
    … … …
    – How to build the linen sample holder …”

    — — —
    Bibliographic reference:

    NanoScience and Technology 2013

    Scanning Probe Microscopy in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 3

    Editors:Bharat Bhushan
    — — — *** — — —
    Instead in the particular case of Liverpool Imprint
    (Jospice Imprint),
    here a vague reference…
    maybe it is useful to solve the case
    (see also: the role of the substrate surface chemistry
    on the crystalline structure of polyamides…) :

    “Surface Morphology and Crystallinity of Polyamides Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy” Aug 2012

    Tamara Elzein, Maurice Brogly, Sophie Bistac


    So, you can take the cue from this article in order
    to deepen your knowledges on the issue
    (see also the old problem : “cold dyeing of Polyamide 6”)…

    1. High Energy Chemistry
      July 2003, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 209-215 On the Crosslinking of Cellulose under Exposure to Radiation
      G. V. Kovalev, L. T. Bugaenko


      >The effect of gamma-irradiation of air-dry cotton cellulose on the degree of order of its supermolecular structure was studied at room temperature within a dose range of 0–2 MGy.
      >The degree of order was evaluated by measuring the crystallinity index by the X-ray diffraction technique and the water-retaining capacity of irradiated cellulose upon both equilibrium saturation with water vapor and swelling in liquid water.
      >The buildup of macroradicals in irradiated cellulose and their decay upon plasticization with water during a postradiation period were also studied.
      >The complex behavior revealed was explained in terms of the effect of radiation-chemical crosslinks on the mobility of macrochains and on the submicroscopic capillarity of cellulose fiber structure
      — —- —
      … and (perhaps) You can can also replace :
      >measuring the crystallinity index by the X-ray diffraction technique

      >measuring the crystallinity by the AFM and SNOM techniques

  6. Modulus of elasticity E (Young’s modulus)
    for Borosilicate glass = 64 x (10^3)N x (mm)^-2

    Poisson’s ratio µ = 0,20
    Thermal conductivity λw at 90 °C = 1,2 W x (m)^-1 x (K)^-1

    >Borosilicate glass is highly resistant to water, neutral and acid solutions, concentrated acids and acid mixtures, and to chlorine, bromine, iodine and organic substances. Its chemical resistance is superior to that of most metals and other materials, even during prolonged periods of exposure and at temperatures above 100°C.


    Borosilicate glass is made to withstand thermal
    shock better than most other glass.
    Then I am curious around your ideas about the possible use
    of that material during experiments on linen fibrils.

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