In reviewing the presentation of Benford-Marino at the 2008 Ohio Shroud conference, I came across something I had not taken note of before:
"’Another distinctive characteristic of the cloth also points to a pre-medieval origin of the Shroud. Although debated in the past, image-analyses tools and techniques have clearly identified the existence of horizontal and vertical bands throughout the Shroud. According to the Cambridge Textile Book,"Tapestry-woven coverlets and hangings were characterized in Hellenistic and early Roman times by ‘shaded bands’, which incorporated subtle colours of graded yarns. Combined later with figured designs, shaded bands had vanished by the fourth century’ (22). Thus, the Shroud, with its shaded bands could not likely have been created after the fourth century."
Footnote 22 reads:
"22. D. Jenkins, (ed.). The Cambridge History of Western Textiles (vol.1). Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press: 113 (2003)."
I have to now make an admission. part of the Shroud was indeed forged – the "invisible patch" was a forgery, although a legitimate authorized forgery. The "invisible French weaving" was carefully designed to resemble the main body of the Shroud. Thus the presence of dye that Rogers found. Some have argued the the banding present on the Shroud appeared to pass through the mended area. There are two explanations for that: (1) either the carbon dating was really askew or (2) the invisible weavers when dying their patch to match the Shroud, took care ti dye it so that the bands were matched. There really were masters of weaving back in those days.