A Guest Post by O.K.

imageIt is well known that after the transfer to Constantinople in 944, all Byzantine descriptions of Mandylion and the Shroud (Constantine Porphyrogenitus, Gregory Referendarius, Nicholas Mesarites) are deliberately vague. The true nature of the Mandylion/Shroud had to remain secret, for the reasons I will discuss next time. We can only guess properties of the Mandylion/Shroud from several allusions. Several of those allusions (pointing to the identity between Shroud and Mandylion and great confusion of the academic community) were discussed in my old posting on Dan’s blog. Today I want to present another allusion, which (what is very strange to me) was ommited by all historians’ elaborations regarding the Mandylion known to me.

In Mark Guscin’s english translation of the 944 sermon of Gregory Referendarius, in chapter 13 we can find a very interesting remark, no historian, as far as I know, paid a proper attention to:

Who is like you, God, doing everything in wisdom from times of old? […] You wiped clean the sweat of the nature you had taken on and what was wiped clean was transformed into an image of your unchanging form, just like Adam’s form was drawn out of the ground, like the eyes of nature in the folds of the kneaded earth. (my emphasis).

Here we have a comparison between creation of Adam, the First Man (and naked, just like the Man of the Shroud -cf. Genesis, chapter 2) and creation of the form of Jesus on the Mandylion. What is the significance of that? I think it is great.

The main "argument" (or should I say pseudo-argument because it has been undermined long ago) is the conviction that the Mandylion contained nothing else, but only image of the face of Jesus. There are of course documents telling otherwise (like Codex Vossianus Latinus Q69), ignored usually by narrow-minded majority of academic scholars, but with regards to the Adam reference in Gregory Referendarius other question arises:

If Mandylion contained only the face, do those wise guys think that Adam’s form drawn out of the ground consisted only of the face?

IMHO, this is ridiculous. The reference to Adam makes sense only if it is an allusion to the fact, that the Mandylion contained the image of the whole body.

Just like the (again deliberately ambiguous!) reference to the side wound (chapter 22 of the Gregory Referendarius’ sermon).

So, based on the contemporary accounts (Constantine Porphyrogenitus, Symeon Magister, Gregory Referendarius, see Daniel Scavone’s paper Acheiropoietos: Jesus Images in Constantinople: the Documentary Evidence ) we can make a list of several allusions (except for #2 not clearly stated facts, which, I should stress once again, is deliberate) to the properties of the Mandylion:

1. It contained bloodstains

2. The image on the Mandylion was very faint, "sweat-like".

3. The reference to the Adam makes sense only if it was an allusion to the fact that the Mandylion contained the whole body (which was mentioned in later, Latin versions of the Abgar story, like Codex Vossianus Latinus Q69)

4. The allusion to the side wound -suggest presence of the whole body image and the side wound.

There is only one known object in the world that fits those "allusions" -the Shroud of Turin.

22 thoughts on “Allusions”

    1. I don’t know if your idea is well centered.
      In theory one can try to ask for
      a direct cooperation between Russia,
      Europe and USA (…is that only an utopia?)
      about a scientific research on two
      “lignocellulosic relics” (one is in Italy and
      the other in Spain) or “ancient textiles” …
      … perhaps this attempt can be successfully pursued.
      But scientists are sometimes jealous of their
      own findings (obtained against competitors)
      and are not always well prepared to extensive
      collaboration … not to mention what happens
      if politics comes into play …
      — — —
      Atomic Force Microscopy for Nanotechnology,
      Scientific Research & Education…

      • Record breaking Raman enhancement factors
      • Nano-Raman spatial resolution: down 10nm
      • High speed TERS* mapping
      • Mass produced, based on serial AFM cantilevers
      • Complete commercial solution for TERS


      Introduction to TERS (nano-Raman)

      >Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS, nano-Raman)
      is the technique for enhancement of weak Raman signals
      and for super-resolution Raman imaging with
      spatial resolution ~10 nm.
      >Nano-Raman imaging provides unique insights
      into sample structure and chemical composition
      on the nanometer scale.

      >In TERS, a sharp metal probe (nano-antenna)
      is used to localize and enhance optical field at the
      tip apex. The light enhancement is typically reached
      when excitation laser light is in resonance with
      localized surface plasmon at the end of
      the TERS probe.
      >Enhancement of electromagnetic field (light)
      intensity on the TERS probe apex can reach
      many orders of magnitudes. In TERS mapping
      the sample is scanned with respect to the
      nano-antenna; the enhanced Raman signal
      localized near the probe apex is measured
      resulting in Raman maps of the sample
      surface with nanometer scale resolution.

      TERS (nano-Raman) imaging by NT-MDT AFM-Raman instrument.

      >NT-MDT develops and supplies unique
      instrumentation for AFM integration with
      various optical microscopy and spectroscopy
      techniques. NT-MDT was the first to introduce
      integrated AFM-Raman instrument in 1998
      and is now the leading developer and supplier
      of such instruments worldwide.

      >NT-MDT AFM-Raman instrument has been
      successfully used for TERS (nano-Raman)
      mapping of various objects with spatial
      resolution reaching 10 nm: graphene and
      other carbon nanomaterials, polymers, thin
      molecular layers (including monolayers),
      semiconductor nanostructures, lipid membranes,
      various protein structures, DNA molecules etc. …


      NT-MDT in mass-media…

      I think you can try to contact the Central office:
      NT-MDT Co. Building 100,
      Zelenograd, Moscow 124482, Russia

      — — —
      In 2003 the first device for educational needs
      NANOEDUCATOR was produced.
      In 2004 the development of a new platform
      NTEGRA (probe nanoscale laboratories)
      was completed.
      On the basis of NTEGRA 12 models have been
      manufactured so far this model range constantly extending.
      In 2006 one of basic systems of the platform
      NTEGRA Spectra won the prize of the American
      magazine Research and Development as
      the best innovative development of the year
      among devices intended for scientific research. …

      … Since 1995 the general director of
      Joint-Stock Company «NT – МДТ» has been
      Bykov Victor Alexandrovich, a Doctor of
      Technical Science, a winner of the award of
      the Russian government in the field of
      science and technology for the year of 2005.


      NANOEDUCATORs are installed in
      Russian schools and universities by NT-MDT Co.
      in terms of the governmental contract.
      NT-MDT Co. has already equipped about 70
      university centers and more then 40 high schools
      in Russia.
      Installations of NANOEDUCATORs as well
      as the conference are essential parts of
      Government Federal Program aimed
      to develop highly qualified scientists in Russia.
      It was the personal idea of the Minister of
      education and science Andrey Fursenko
      (here my note : In 1971 graduated from the
      Leningrad State University named after
      A. A. Zhdanov. Doctor Degree in physics.
      From 1971 to 1991 he worked in Leningrad
      at the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute as
      a junior researcher, chief of the laboratory,
      deputy director for science, leading researcher,
      etc., etc. … ) who after visiting an international
      nanoexhibition had come to the decision to get
      Russian pupils and students acquainted with
      nanoworld in practice. Due to this program
      young investigators got an opportunity to feel
      and understand the nanoscale by their
      own hands and eyes. …

      Rusnano corporation (formerly Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies) is a joint-stock company created by the government of Russia in 2007. Rusnano’s task is to create by 2015 a nano-industry in the country that will make marketable products worth 900 billion rubles ($29 billion).

      >…Rusnano provides equity investments (up to
      50% co-investment) in later stage nanotechnology-
      related projects with substantial economic potential.
      In addition to supporting domestic nano-industry,
      Rusnano also seeks for nanotechnology transfer
      to Russia and invests capital in foreign companies.
      With this regard, Finnish Industry Investment Ltd
      and Rusnano came to an agreement in 2010
      about an investment program in nanotechnology,
      allocating a total of 50 million euros for
      investments in Finnish and in Russian nanotech companies…

      NT-MDT President Victor Bykov Accepts
      The Nanotechnology International Prize
      RUSNANOPRIZE October 2014

      1. There are 96 high schools in the Russian Federation equipped with the NANOEDUCATOR training laboratories. All over the world there are around 200 such labs installed so far…
        So you can ask the help of NT-MDT

        Instead of doing an easy irony of Putin (former agent of the KGB) I believe that you (along with others interested in this particular issue) may ask what can give Russia to improve the Shroud studies.

        For 16 years Putin was an officer in the KGB, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before he retired to enter politics …
        Now there is a secret service FSB …

        In any case it must be recalled that the company NT-MDT is not present only in Russia but also in other parts of the world …
        I do not think the company NT-MDT was involved in acts of espionage, but this is just my personal opinion (and without interesting proofs).

        See also the article:
        “FSB: Vladimir Putin’s immensely powerful modern-day KGB”

        >…Many of the brighter or entrepreneurial KGB operatives left the agency in the chaos of the 1990s, using their contacts and know-how to enter the business world as security consultants, fixers or businessmen in their own right…
        >Unlike the KGB, the FSB is not in charge of foreign spies. The responsibility for running agents like such as Anna Chapman and the nine other spies caught by US authorities, has passed to a separate agency, the SVR. But internally, the FSB has an extraordinarily wide remit. …


        Up to now Russia’s war engagement in Syria seems to be very far from the questions inherent to application of nanotechnology in textile research.
        In my opinion, these operative fields (one with respect the other) are full of different kind of problems and then we have to avoid to mix the questions…

      1. Here other news:
        “HybriD™ Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) from NT-MDT – An Interview with Sergei Magonov”

        >AZoNano talks to Sergei Magonov about NT-MDT’s new HybriD™ AFM Mode, which combines the best aspects of contact and oscillatory modes, opening up new applications of AFM technology…


    2. well Padre Pio reported saying that Russia will teach America a lesson in conversion before it’s all over…and he was VERY Anti-Soviet when he said it….so who knows!

      1. Putin is a cold blooded murderer. He uses the Russian Church as a tool in his grand designs. If that’s conversion then we are back to the days of Constantine. In America we have the right wing ‘Christians’ who now see an ally in Putin. If not for Pope Francis I would say Christianity was headed for disaster.

        1. you know…Pope Jean Paul 2 was pretty conservative……you might even call him right wing in some ways…and he brought down communism (with regan)….think the left is worse then the right., especially how they tried to use the Church in central America and Cuba……Pope Francis’s tone is different…but so far not the overall message is not

        2. don’t worry David….Jesus already said the church is safe:

          Jesus answered and said to him, “Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but My Father who is in heaven. And I also say to you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hell shall not prevail against it.

        3. david..agree with you Putin..he’s just trying to use the church….but doesn’t mean God can’t bring some good out of it…when I look at Putin I think KGB

  1. Hi OK – Thank you for the posting. For me it is not difficult to understand your logic. I am totally agreeing with you.

  2. I did not think that our speech can be turned in a set of vague exchanges, with many digressions …
    I just tried to focus the discussion on the concrete needs for scientific research (AFM controls, etc.).
    I think that an international company such as NT-MDT has a certain level of freedom and good margins to be independent of the influence of the secret services.
    But I cannot be sure of that.

    Here (perhaps) there is an example
    (…five years ago):
    “NT-MDT Co. participated in Russian-Ireland Forum of Nanotechnology”

    >On the 8th of September the one-day Russian-Ireland
    Forum of Nanotechnology was held in the head
    office of the Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies
    >As the leading Russian manufacturer of
    equipment for nanoscience NT-MDT Co.
    participated in the Forum.
    >The Forum was organized by Science
    Foundation Ireland (SFI) and the Russian
    Corporation of Nanotechnologies (RUSNANO).
    etc. …, etc. …
    >RUSNANO is Russian state owned
    corporation established in 2007 to enable
    Government policy in the field of Nanotechnology.
    >The corporation is aimed at commercializing
    developments in nanotechnology.
    >RUSNANO co-invests in nanotechnology
    industry projects that have high commercial
    potential or social benefit …etc. …


    I have no particular claims about the so-called
    (or presumed) “Putin’s Kleptocracy” (then,
    see also = …”Who Owns Russia?”!!!)…
    I am just curious about the possibility
    to improve the advancement of scientific
    knowledges on two ancient relics/reperts
    using SPMs, etc..

  3. Piero, I always enjoy your detailed posts even though I do not have the scientific background to understands much of it…however sometimes I think the digressions are the best part of this blog

    1. Perhaps my previous interventions on this blog
      about the theme: “Putin, Russia, nanotechnology
      and SPM controls of textiles relics” were only
      a bit sketched and harsh attempt to depict the situation.

      Instead, for example, if I had been a creative artist,
      I should show to you the possibility to obtain
      a blue madder-heme lake using the blood of
      some little animal (= mollusc)…

      >…Oxygenation causes a color change
      between the colorless Cu(I) deoxygenated
      form and the blue Cu(II) oxygenated form…


      So …
      Now I want to write something on another,
      less boring, subject…

      In a review about the book of
      Demetrio Paparoni (“Cristo e l’imponta dell’Arte”)
      I have read:

      > A footprint: and then a reference to an absent body,
      who was present, and now it is not … more
      > Paparoni, critic, curator and founder of
      the contemporary art magazine “TemaCeleste”,
      think about the Shroud and especially around
      the Veronica to expand al’eco de body and
      the face of Christ in art, resonant as memory
      or as explicit reference in fingerprint famous as
      blueprints Rauschenberg and Anthropometries Klein …

      > … The figure of Christ crucified and buried,
      the Christ of Good Friday and Holy Saturday,
      has become an important chapter of a
      repertoire semantically dense and powerful,
      but now free from the religious and historical
      context from which it originates …

      I think that this kind of return to the paradox
      of a schizophrenic presence-absence of God
      is what can upset the man.
      This modern man is immersed in the
      World and in the evil (the emblematic figure
      of Putin, a former secret agent […probably
      involved in who knows what kind of secret plots],
      can also be seen in this aspect) …

      Here some words about the artistic attempts
      made by Rauschenberg:
      >… Somewhere between the end of
      the Abstract Expressionism period and
      the beginnings of the Pop Art movement,
      Robert Rauschenberg began experimenting
      with portraiture through the usage of blueprint photograms.
      Rauschenberg made exposures of his subject’s bodies
      as they sprawled in elaborate and strange positions
      across the huge piece of blueprint paper, which
      he exposed using a lamp.
      >The ghostly-white subjects appear ethereal
      against the cornflower blue backdrop, framed
      by salvaged foliage. Delicate and wraithlike,
      Rauschenberg’s subjects appear as though
      they are floating through the sky, sometimes
      appearing with whimsical props, or
      surrounded by an array of leaves
      and flowers.
      >These early photographic experiments of
      Rauschenberg’s seem worlds apart from
      the political and colourful work that he is
      perhaps best known for.
      >However, this experimentation lead to
      his usage of found and vernacular
      imagery alongside his own photographs
      to create silk-screen prints, paintings,
      sculptures and installations. …


      In any case I have some doubt about
      the use of the very materiality of our body-shell…
      See also: “Robert Rauschenberg creating a
      blueprint photogram, photographed by Wallace Kirkland”…
      these secular nymphs besides whose
      shapes often we do not see appear more
      than a sort of desperate nihilism expressed
      by artists …


      >…This book tells how artists have dealt with
      in their work relationship with the transcendent
      and how they treated the image of Christ,
      interpreting the figure with the goal of making
      the invisible visible.
      >Demetrio Paparoni, among the most?
      >Keen observers of contemporary approaches to
      analyzing paintings of the past in relation to
      the visions that come from modern and
      contemporary art.
      >This approach emerges already in the cover,
      a recent painting by Chinese artist Yue Minjun,
      which incorporates the Deposition from the
      Cross by Rosso Fiorentino, however emptying
      of human presence.
      >With a flat and accessible writing, the book
      examines the way in which today’s artists have
      reshaped the iconographic, and inevitably theological,
      the figure of Christ in the light of historical
      changes and the development of new languages.
      >…The book brings into play new combinations
      to help you analyze the anthropometry of
      Yves Klein and the many works created by
      the imprint of the human body in relation to
      the Shroud of Turin. Also devotes attention to
      the way in which the figure of Christ appears
      in contemporary Chinese art. The wealth of
      references ranging from Matthias Grünewald
      to Anish Kapoor, by Sebastiano del Piombo to
      Akseli Gallen-Kallela, from ancient icons to
      Andy Warhol, from Hans Holbein Marlene
      Dumas by veronica of El Greek to those of
      Georges Rouault, Mimmo Paladino , Francesco
      Clemente and Nicola Samori, from the Shroud
      of Turin to the representations that have made
      Tony Oursler and Wang Guangyi. Through its
      analysis and extensive overview of works,
      reproduced with print quality that characterizes
      publications Skira, “Christ and the imprint of the Art”
      makes an important contribution to the contemporary
      debate about art today.


      … an empty linen sheet,
      an empty Art… and
      an “empty Christ”???

    2. Here what I have read about TERS
      (= Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering):
      >the full synergistic effect of AFM and
      optical spectroscopies comes into play
      when the AFM tip is tasked with
      “becoming the light source.” …
      and then
      we have to find an adequate explanation
      about the fact that:
      “The full synergistic effect of optical
      spectroscopies and atomic force microscopy
      comes into play when we task the AFM tip
      with “becoming” the light source.”…
      — —
      >By using a suitable AFM tip as a scatter source
      and subsequently scanning the sample, an
      optical map together with topography and
      other typical atomic force microscopy
      information can be acquired.

      >If one chooses…
      … a suitable combination of tip and
      incident light, and places them in the correct
      geometry, a strong electromagnetic field is
      generated at the apex of the tip.
      >This field is mainly due to the incident light
      exciting a plasmon resonance in the tip. …

      “Advances in Combined Atomic Force and
      Raman Microscopy”
      Stefan Kaemmer, Ph.D.,
      Bruker Nano Surfaces Division

      o in

      I would be curious to observe whjat are the differences
      about TERS spectra of linen fibrils
      (respectively: not treated, treated only with Madder
      and then with Madder-Heme lake)…
      But see also the less expensive case of
      SERS spectra…

    1. Here I want to add
      a very short “TERS Bibliography”.

      Tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS)
      has been proposed as a method to
      spectroscopically interrogate a wide variety of
      chemical, biological, and material samples,
      with sub-diffraction-limited imaging capabilities.
      In TERS, the electromagnetic field enhancement
      is located at a sharp metallic tip that is
      irradiated with laser light.
      When the tip is brought close to the
      sample of interest, it provides a localized
      region of SERS enhancement, which
      enables structural and compositional
      characterization with spatial resolution
      of a few nanometers. …
      — — —
      >TERS uses a scanning probe microscopy
      (SPM) tip as an external enhancing unit.
      >Because the enhancement originates
      from an external source, this technique
      makes significantly enhanced Raman
      signals accessible for any adsorbate
      on any surface.
      >When a noble metal SPM tip is irradiated
      with light that excites the tip LSPR,
      electromagnetic field enhancement takes
      place near the tip apex.
      >This enhancement can be used to increase
      the Raman scattering intensity from
      molecules in the vicinity of the tip, even
      though they are not directly adsorbed
      to it, due to the long-range nature of
      the interaction between the molecules
      and the enhanced electromagnetic field.
      >SPM tips made from or coated with Ag or
      Au have been shown to enhance Raman
      scattering intensities of molecules near the
      tip by 3 to 6 orders of magnitude
      (Pettinger et al., 2002, 2004; Watanabe et al., 2004).
      >An additional advantage afforded by TERS
      is its nanometer scale spatial resolution.
      >TERS combines the high sensitivity and rich
      chemical information content of SERS with
      the excellent spatial resolution provided
      by SPM.
      >TERS can provide Raman spectra with a
      spatial resolution near the radius ofcurvature
      of the SPM tip, which is far better than the
      diffraction limit typically encountered in
      optical microscopy.
      >For this reason, TERS has been referred
      to as apertureless near-field Raman spectroscopy.
      >TERS has been used to provide high-resolution
      images of nanoscale samples, and since
      the light detected is Raman scattering,
      chemical information is built in.

      “Plasmonic materials for surface-enhanced and
      tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy”
      MA. Y oung, J A. Dieringer, RP. Van Duyne


      Click to access 2007_Young.pdf

      — — —
      >… Opportunities for future research include
      the development of noninvasive approaches
      and the application of SERS to the analysis
      of single layers on stratigraphic cross sections.
      Bringing the probe directly to the artifact or
      sample without leaving residues could, for
      example, be achieved with tip-enhanced
      SERS (TERS) or advanced functionalized
      SERS-active optical fibers. …

      “Identification of Organic Colorants in Fibers,
      Paints, and Glazes by Surface Enhanced Raman
      Francesca Casadio
      (A.W. Mellon Senior Conservation
      Scientist at the Art Institute of Chicago),
      Marco Leona
      (David H. Koch Scientist in Charge of the
      Department of Scientific Research at the
      Metropolitan Museum of Art)
      and other reserchers…

  4. Here’s what we can read,
    surfing the Web:

    >… At the recent SPIE conference in San Diego,
    the XploRA Nano equipped, with AFM-TERS
    tips, showed nanoscale chemical imaging
    of a single carbon nanotube with a spatial
    resolution of 8 nm, confirmed from the
    section analysis of the intensity of
    the TERS bands. The images …
    >… show an onsite demonstration of
    TERS mapping of a single carbon nanotube,
    with an optical spatial resolution down to 8 nm.
    >“The TERS image on the right, 100 x 100 nm
    scanning area, is obtained with a pixel step
    size of 1.3 nm, in a total acquisition time …The HORIBA Scientific TERS instrumentation
    is robust, compact, and easy-to-use. It is
    currently available for chemical imaging at
    the nanoscale for real world applications.
    >More information can be found


    >HORIBA’s leading Raman technology
    is now integrated with outstanding scanning
    probe microscopy (SPM).
    >The platform integrates Atomic Force
    Microscopy (AFM), near-field optical
    techniques (SNOM, NSOM), Scanning
    Tunneling Microscopy (STM), tuning fork
    techniques and confocal optical spectroscopy
    (Raman and fluorescence imaging) in
    one versatile instrument, for fast simultaneous
    co-localized measurements and
    Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS).


    >…TERS (or nano-Raman) brings you
    the best of both worlds: the chemical
    specificity of Raman spectroscopy with
    imaging at spatial resolution typically
    down to 10nm.
    >This technique can be demonstrated on
    various samples ranging from nanotubes to DNA. …

  5. …the ancient treatment of linen sheet
    with madder (which has been suggested
    by Adrie van der Hoeven) couldn’t
    perhaps be seen as a kind of factor that
    anticipated modern techniques of surface
    treatment (textile nanotech)?
    — — —
    “Modern Applications of Nanotechnology in Textiles”

    >Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials
    from 1 to 100 nm in length.
    … NT is defined as the understanding, manipulation,
    and control of matter at the above-stated length,
    such that the physical, chemical, and biological
    properties of the materials (individual atoms,
    molecules, and bulk matter) can be engineered,
    synthesized, and altered to develop the next
    generation of improved materials, devices,
    structures, and systems.
    >NT at the molecular level can be used
    to develop desired textile characteristics,
    such as high tensile strength, unique surface
    structure, soft hand, durability, water
    repellency, fire retardancy, antimicrobial
    properties, and the like.
    >Indeed, advances in NT have created
    enormous opportunities and challenges f
    or the textile industry…


    How is it possible to remain blind to the
    prospects of textile research that can be
    connected to the studies on the Holy Shroud?

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