Home > Image Theory > Have we all been looking in the wrong place?

Have we all been looking in the wrong place?

August 23, 2015

Are Di Lazzaro’s laser-generated pulses of uv radiation
actually targeting that S1 lignin, not “cellulose”

Colin Berry, looking through a microscope sees something. We’ll get to that. But first, parenthetically, he informs us know:

(sorry about the poor resolution,” he says in parentheses, “but that’s probably due to the cylindrical 3D light-reflecting/bending geometry of linen fibres).

image

He goes on:

See the link to a paper reporting from detailed microscopy – light and electron microscope- that some of the lignin of flax bast cells (as used for linen) is not only inside the fibres, but in the S1 layer that would put it just below the PCW.

When Colin writes, “See the link…” I think he is referring to Lignification in the flax stem: evidence for an unusual lignin in bast fibers. We find that in his blog. Colin continues:

Have we all been looking in the wrong place? Are Di Lazzaro’s laser-generated pulses of uv radiation actually targeting that S1 lignin, not “cellulose” as claimed, generating hot spots that may then cook what’s around them? First Law of Photochemistry: light – regardless of wavelength or how generated – has first to be absorbed by one or more chromophores for there to be any chemical reaction – which would include faint yellow/brown coloration. So the first priority of photochemists (I can’t speak for laser physicists) is to identify your chromophore. Uv light is far more likely to target an aromatic compound like lignin, albeit as a minor constituent of linen, than a non-aromatic carbohydrate like cellulose.

Have we all been looking in the wrong place? That’s one question. It’s a good one.

Another one comes to mind.  Colin didn’t ask this. I am. At what point is increased contrast more detrimental than helpful by introducing exaggeration, blocking detail and creating image artifacts? At what point does reliance on increased contrast cross the line between science and pseudoscience?

Categories: Image Theory Tags:
  1. August 23, 2015 at 8:10 am

    What are the ramifications of Colin’s assertion? If we are indeed looking in the wrong place how does this affect laser theories, or Maillard, etc?

  2. piero
    August 23, 2015 at 8:39 am

    Colin Berry seemed to be a good worker
    (but he didn’t answer about FeOX and NaClO
    [in conncection with the lack of diimide treatment
    (by STURP)], etc. ),
    but I think that:
    the only serious way to work is to test the
    Shroud material in a very careful manner
    (using SPMs techniques, etc.)…

  3. August 23, 2015 at 9:00 am

    This investigator would never display a contrast-enhanced photomicrograph without showing the ‘as-is” unenhanced one alongside. In most instances, at least with flour/hot oven imprinting, the images are clearly visible on removal from oven (indeed they stay in the oven until the ARE easily visible) It’s only after the final attenuation stage, when the image can be exceedingly faint (as per TS!) that one resorts to added contrast, but purely as a visual aid .

    If I weren’t reporting to my blog I’d probably not bothering capturing the high-contrast image for posterity, or even for next week’s Recycle Bin. I’d simply do some simple checks to ensure that one is not viewing or creating artefacts. One way is to move the contrast slide-control in my MS Office Picture Manager from 0-100 (usually with adjustements to brightness and midtone value) to ensure that no new features are appearing or disappearing (I cannot recall a single instance in which that has happened – the contrast acting merely to reinforce what is already visible). The second way is to compare the high-contrast image with the original straight-from-oven image prior to washing. They usually resemble each other very closely. In other words the final attenuation step needed to “match” the faint and ghostly TS is one that DELIBERATELY reduces contrast, so there’s a sense in which, if careful, one is fully entitled to restore it electronically, if only to ensure that the attenuation step has not created artefacts that others might discover and publish by playing with their contrast settings!

    I’m about to report results with an oil-only imprinting procedure that shows promise of explaining a neglected aspect of the TS body image, namely coloration in the crossover junctions as well as the celebrated crown threads. We may be seeing evidence of a hypothetical flour imprinting medium being supplemented with exogenous oil ( e.g by smearing oil on the skin before dusting with flour). There the contrast control becomes virtually obligatory in the absence of flour to check the capabilities of oil on its own. I’ve even resorted to using a home-made orange oil (tomatoes being a handy source of oil-soluble lycopene – a member of the carotenoid family, C40H56). One simply boils tomato paste, water and vegetable oil for a few minutes, then (the tricky bit when one lacks a separating funnel) aspirating the orange oil off the surface with a micropipette.

    • August 23, 2015 at 9:17 am

      Some questions just came to mind, Colin. I assume in your theory that the whole linen would have to be heated in the oven at the same time. It’s a very large linen. Did ovens of this size exist in the period? Is there evidence of uneven heating on the linen – which I would expect with a medieval period large oven? What would the back of the linen have rested on during heating to prevent scorching?

      • Louis
        August 23, 2015 at 9:48 am

        David, Dr. Di Lazzaro tackles the doubts you are referring to, except that he talks about a statue. He says that the scorching could not last more than ten seconds.

    • piero
      August 24, 2015 at 9:36 am

      Colin,
      Have you become a scientist-guru with eight hands?
      How can you do all those jobs?
      — —
      Lignin changes were indicated by J. Cardamone:
      >… When heat is within the glass transition temperature
      of lignin, 130 C to 190 C, is applied, lignin becomes
      darkly discolored…
      (“Structural features of the flax fiber in general and
      the possible role of Lignin in Image Formation”,
      Symposium at Villa Gualino, Turin, year 2000)
      — —
      In one of the past messages I wrote:
      >… Anyway … don’t you ever faced the problem of
      the presence of iron oxides?
      >If these iron oxide powders are invested by the
      powerful VUV excimer laser then, probably, they produce holes.

      There is a lack of controls for that problem,
      it remain unsolved.
      Here another unsolved problem:
      We still have to deepen the exact penetration power of VUV.
      Can really pass the surface layer (= PCW = Primary Cell Wall)
      of carbohydrates this presumed VUV irradiation?
      I think we need to distinguish between the two laser sources:
      XeCl and ArF…
      So we have to carefully observe what really happens
      on linen fibers and make inherent comparisons.
      — —
      Here I want to add something about the fact that
      Plant cell walls were one of the first biological samples
      that were examined by AFM (Kirby et al., 1996;
      van der Wel et al., 1996).

      Here the details:
      – Kirby AR, Gunning AP, Waldron KW, Morris VJ, Ng A.
      (1996)
      Visualization of plant cell walls by atomic force microscopy.
      Biophys J 70: 1138–1143

      – van der Wel NN, Putman CAJ, vanNoort SJT, deGrooth BG, Emons AMC.
      (1996)
      Atomic force microscopy of pollen grains, cellulose microfibrils,
      and protoplasts.
      Protoplasma 194: 29–39

      Well…
      Here two excerpts from:
      “Tools for Cellulose Analysis in Plant Cell Walls”
      by
      Darby Harris, Vincent Bulone, Shi-You Ding, and Seth DeBolt*

      Plant Physiol. 2010 Jun; 153(2): 420–426.
      Focus Issue on Plant Cell Walls
      Published online 2010 Mar 19.

      >… the relatively new imaging technique of atomic force microscopy
      (AFM) has the capacity to provide atom-level resolution of the
      cellulosic matrix in the cell wall of fresh tissue.
      >Therefore, beyond the compositional structure of cellulose,
      AFM can offer a spatial view of cellulose microfibril orientation
      in the polylaminate cell wall. … … etc. …
      >… Ultimately, AFM imaging representing the native structure
      of cellulose provides an enormous opportunity to better
      understand the molecular architecture in dermal cell layers,
      particularly when combined with the confocal live cell imaging … …

      Link:
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2879802/
      — — —
      AFM could be used to answer some of the key questions
      regarding the nanostructures within plant cell wall cellulose.
      So using the AFM techniques we can also better identify
      the composition of colored thin layers.
      As regards the famous problem of the lack of depth
      (= z direction) with AFM analyses, I think this fact can be
      overcome using samples cut almost at the nanometer level…

      As you already know, Dr. Ray Rogers did underline
      this “z-direction” problem [several years ago] in a message
      (addressed to myself).
      I was not quite prepared for that problem because,
      more than anything else, I had thought the general
      way of accurate measurement of the cellulose chains.
      The BIF (= Body Image Formation) problem was another
      serious problem to solve, but (first of all) I aimed my spear
      (my lance = the AFM tip) toward the assault to the problem
      of true epoch in order to try to solve that first gordian node. …

  4. Thibault HEIMBURGER
    August 23, 2015 at 9:39 am

    I have purchased this paper (“Lignification in the flax stem..”) some years ago. I have it.

    And then ?

    There is a major problem with Colin.
    He is going so fast that nobody can follow him.
    Jumping from an hypothesis to another one, there is no time to discuss seriously.

    For example, looking at his dry-flour model, I would like to see much more photographs because what I have seen is not at all convincing.
    Too late …

    • anoxie
      August 24, 2015 at 8:11 am

      With such a fast and furious blog pace, you can only ask questions, and overlook (bad) answers. He is our hyper-blogger.

  5. August 23, 2015 at 9:48 am

    If anyone is in any doubt as to the ability of dry flour imprinting onto wet linen to produce a reasonable approximation of the TS body image (fuzzy negative image, coloration predominantly on crown fibres etc ) there’s a simply remedy. Try it yourself at home. Linen, flour, water, hot oven and one’s own hand as “subject”. It’s a half hour job at most (have the oven preheating on max temperature while doing the messy bit with the flour). Oh, and a thin smear of vegetable oil on one’s skin before dusting with flour produces an even faster result.

    • Thibault HEIMBURGER
      August 23, 2015 at 10:40 am

      Yes I will try at home.
      With and without oil (although with oil there is no half-tone, according to you !!)

      Probably another PDF !!!

    • John Green
      August 23, 2015 at 11:03 am

      Colin

      I think you and others are doing very important work in trying to solve this, however I have a few problems here.

      It’s one thing to do an imprint of a hand, but yet another to try and do a whole body, both sides. Do you use a live model, or kill someone first and put marks on the body? Do you coat the subject first and then lay the body down on the linen? I don’t think that would give you a clear outline, but I’m not going to try it. Do you somehow hold the subject up and drake the linen over them and press the linen down with your hands? That would give you a very uneven image I think. And now the biggest problem, WHY?

      Why would anyone go to all that trouble? Why would they have not just painted an image on the linen? I mean they would have no way of knowing the tools we have in hand to detect paint or other thing on the linen? Most likely it would take years and years of trial and error to come up with this, if they could do it. It makes no sense. Why not just use some type of paint or something to paint an image on the linen?

      I don’t think it was painted, but that would be the easy way to do it.

      If it’s real than I think it’s some type of natural event, but that brings a whole new set of questions.

      Give up the good work!

      • John Green
        August 23, 2015 at 12:09 pm

        Big typo, should read
        Keep up the good work!

        Sorry about that.

  6. August 23, 2015 at 11:34 am

    Dan can maybe confirm, but I must have posted well over 1500 comments to this skite addressing the whys and wherefores of the TS, and it’s frankly tedious to have to repeat oneself over and over again.

    My position since early 2014 could not be simpler to articulate|: the TS was a medieval project that set out to simulate/model/re-enact/fabricate/fake what a sweat/blood imprint left on Joseph of Arimathea’s linen en route from cross to tomb might look like some 1300 or more years later. It had to be an IMPRINT, and instantly recognizable as such. Thus the (hey, guess what ?) – ‘imprinted” look, what today we call a negative image, but there was a belt-and-braces approach to leave no one in any doubt whatsoever as to the mechanism by which the image was acquired – by contact imprinting – NOT oh so unimaginative painting that would not have stood up to a few seconds of close examination. The clincher? The double body image, frontal v dorsal, aligned head to head with a small distance between the two. That screams IMPRINT!

    The so-called wounds? They don’t exist, contrary to a host of sindonologists. There are blood stains instead, proxies for wounds, at strategically- sited locations that correspond with the biblical account, but our modellers realized, even if some modern day experts do not, that a contact imprint from a man with open wounds does not obligatorily require imaging of torn or piunctured skin if there’s to be blood there instead. Put another way, a sweat imprint cannot be expected to compete and leave its signature if there’s blood at that location too.

    Back now to my own site, where I am planning a riposte to the claim that I am seeing two slim fibres with an intervening gap, not the single fibre I confidently claim with thermochemically-produced yellow or brown pigment seemingly inside the cylinder, This investigator is far from infallible, but does not make elementary errors, as some here would have other site visitors believe. Time will show who’s right and who’s wrong. I have the time, being retired. Do they? Might it be they who are being over-hasty, not me as claimed?

    • August 23, 2015 at 12:40 pm

      PS: One final comment tonight. Folk may be wondering how I intend to shoot down that ‘two fibres instead of one’ claim. Here’s a starter image:

      https://shroudofturinwithoutallthehype.files.wordpress.com/2015/08/twin11.png?w=640&h=236

      It’s a single thread that has been teased out of the weave from linen that has been thermo-imprinted with flour. The fibre was chosen because it had a pale brown colour.

      Under the microscope on my intermediate magnification (x10 objective) you can see why it’s brown if you look at the underside of that curve. It’s due to individual fibres that look brown against a black background (the latter being the chosen and achieved by top illumination only).

      Already one should be able to see that the brown is the core colour of fibres by comparing with the size of the detached fibres. The idea that the brown is “background colour” between threads is frankly a non-starter – the regular geometry and spacing alone between those brown strands should dispel that notion immediately.

      But we shan’t stop there. The next step is to take a pair of needles and tease out the separate fibres from that thread, with a view to showing that each individual fibre has a brown core (or as I suspect, outer core) that is inside an uncoloured outer layer. The hypothesis under test is that the outermlost PCW is NOT the recipient of the image colour. The recipient is directly underneath in the S1 layer, with a lacy network (?) of lignin being the real chromophore. Fun, isn’t it? No? Forget I said that…

      • August 23, 2015 at 12:49 pm

        PS: Note the occasional interruptions in the brown coloration, highly visible in a particular strand near the top, corresponding with the segmenting nodes of individual fibres. In other words, that brown is NOT background colour. It’s the inside of fibres that have been thermally insulted!

        • piero
          August 24, 2015 at 9:48 am

          As I previously wrote:

          Lignin changes were indicated by J. Cardamone:
          >… When heat is within the glass transition temperature
          of lignin, 130 C to 190 C, is applied, lignin becomes
          darkly discolored…
          (“Structural features of the flax fiber in general and
          the possible role of Lignin in Image Formation”,
          Symposium at Villa Gualino, Turin, year 2000)

          So… IMO, we require careful observations (= at nanometric level).

  7. Hugh Farey
    August 23, 2015 at 1:10 pm

    “Why would anyone go to all that trouble?” I have spent some time over the weekend pondering on, and debating, that very question. What follows is not at all definitive, but might show in which direction I am currently pointing. Imagine three artists producing an image of Christ. Artist A simply paints a picture. Even though it is life sized, he does not pretend that it is anything more than a painting. He probably does not paint a nude image, but, as nudity is what he wants to represent, a loose wisp of cloth is unrealistically ‘flown’ across the appropriate place. Artist B want to produce a “miracle.” He too just paints a picture, and it looks just like Artist A’s picture, but he manages to persuade some gullible clerics that it was found in a Byzantine church, which is enough to begin to establish its credentials. A hundred years later its frame is so covered in ribbon and episcopal seals that its miraculous nature is assured. Artist C wants to produce something which is not a painting, nor a miracle, but a representation of what might have been left on a cloth if it had covered a dead body. Whether he does this pretending that it is the real thing, or a representation of what the real thing might have looked like for liturgical or educational purposes is not important. Possibly he deliberately wants to encapsulate the entire passion, from the bloody sweat to the final spear thrust, and including the “stripping of his garments” all in a single educational package which can be displayed above an altar. Does he get a friend, paste him up and spread a cloth? Maybe he does, and the resulting mess is wholly inadequate. By experimentation, using a variety of materials and techniques, possibly including flour, oil, myrrh, aloes – even real sweat – he achieves a satisfactory result.

    You don’t believe it? Why indeed? Why should anybody, but that’s not the point of my comment. We may never be able to answer the question, ‘Why did someone go to that trouble?, but we can certainly have a guess at ‘Why might someone have gone to that trouble?’

    • John Green
      August 23, 2015 at 2:15 pm

      Thank you for your opition on this.

      I’m 50-50 on this whole thing so I’m just looking for something to tip the scales.

      • daveb of wellington nz
        August 23, 2015 at 3:46 pm

        I suggest try getting the blood on first, in all the right places, and see if you can get a good matching, but with no image under the blood. Does that tip the scales?

        • John Green
          August 24, 2015 at 3:03 am

          Daveb
          For me if it was confirmed that it is blood that would tip the scales big time.

    • Thomas
      August 24, 2015 at 2:14 am

      Still sounds far fetched, to me.
      of course atheists would argue not as far fetched as it being created by the resurrection!

  8. Sampath Fernando
    August 23, 2015 at 3:54 pm

    Yes Daveb you are absolutely correct. That is how image on TS was formed. These researchers are ignoring that basic fact.

  9. Hugh Farey
    August 23, 2015 at 5:13 pm

    “These researchers”…. I’m not sure who “these researchers” are, but if they include me then I can assure you that they do not ignore facts, basic or not. However they may not feel that conclusions are as secure as others think they are, and will be happy to explain why.

    Firstly, any kind of contact mechanism, including but nor restricted to Colin’s flour coatings, could have the blood applied to the contacting material after the image-making medium had been applied, so that when the cloth was pressed to the ‘body’ naturally the blood will contact the cloth before the medium, quite possibly obscuring its effects.

    Secondly the observations upon which the conclusion that there is no image under the blood are not particularly conclusive. The observations are that when a variety of fibrils are tested with protease, not only is all protein effectively removed, but that “blood” and “non-image” fibres resemble each each other, but appear different from “image” fibres. The difference between “image” and “non-image” fibres is that the surfaces of the former appear “corroded” while the latter appear “slightly corroded.” This corrosion, according to Heller and Adler, is directly related to cellulosic decomposition related to image-formation.

    It should be noted that the observation that the colour of the cloth in image, non-image, and scorch fibres is directly related to the degradation of the linen fibrils is directly contradictory to Ray Rogers’s hypothesis that the Shroud was covered with some kind of coating, which, if it was removed, would leave undisturbed linen beneath.

    However, it must be remembered that while the blood stained every fibril of the area of cloth with which it made contact, the image stained only a very few fibres on the upper surfaces of the crowns of the threads. In other words the vast majority of the blood fibrils would have had no image underneath them, even if the image appeared on the cloth before the blood. Furthermore, it is apparent from Mark Evans’s micrographs that much of the blood has been abraded away, and that this abrasion has mostly been from the uppermost surfaces of the threads, removing both blood and any image that may have been beneath, and leaving on the surface only fibres originally beneath the image layer.

    If I have not made myself clear, I hope someone will ask for clarification. If my comment is clear, but other commenters disagree with it, I hope they will explain why. Given Sampath’s comment above, I’m sure it won’t be simply ignored.

    • daveb of wellington nz
      August 24, 2015 at 4:28 am

      “… so that when the cloth was pressed to the ‘body’ naturally the blood will contact the cloth before the medium, quite possibly obscuring its effects.”

      I wonder what happens to the blood upon putting the model into the oven. From casual kitchen observations, I would expect it to turn the colour of gravy, and I wouldn’t expect the various chemical fractions, such as those detected by Adler et al, to retain their molecular integrity without observing a change.

  10. Louis
    August 23, 2015 at 5:22 pm

    Hugh
    I have detected a problem in your comment. On the other thread you say that Barrie Schwortz may hopefully be talk about the Shroud during a papal general audience and here you do not advocate authenticity.
    Also, there is something more urgent, as news.What was the reaction to the talk in London?

  11. Hugh Farey
    August 23, 2015 at 11:51 pm

    The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has almost as great an interest in the Shroud as Christians do, as for them it acts as direct evidence that Jesus did not die on the cross, which supports the possibility that he recovered and later went to India, as proposed by their founder Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in 1899. Barrie, of course, speaks about his personal involvement with the study of the Shroud, and is for the most part an impartial recounter of all the information derived from the various investigations into it, particularly, of course, those of the STuRP team with which he was involved, and his knowledge and enthusiasm for the subject was greatly respected by the attendees of the Jalsa (in Alton, Hampshire, incidentally, not London). however, although Barrie is happy to say why he has become convinced that the Shroud is genuine, he does not proselytise, nor engage in pathological questions in which he is not qualified, so that there was no confrontation regarding the causes of the blood stains, which Ahmadiyya Muslim pathologists are certain are too extensive to have emerged from a dead body. In this they concur with the findings of Rodney Hoare (The Testimony of the Shroud) and Helmut Felzmann (Resurrected of Revived).

    • Louis
      August 24, 2015 at 5:47 am

      Thank you, Hugh.

  12. August 24, 2015 at 1:16 am

    It was through looking at my own photomicrograph on this site (see above) I realized something that speaks a lot for the resolving power of my cheap old microscope.

    Has no one else spotted it? Clue: look for the blue. Then google “optical brighteners” , as in modern linen, and the different ways in which the brightening effect can be achieved. Then look again at both my pictures, even the low contrast one, and tell me that my microscope lacks resolving power (revealing as it does the internal architecture of a linen fibre that has been “histologically-stained” for a commercial reason that has nothing to do with the furtherance of botanical science).

    On a different matter please see the valuable observations posted above by Hugh Farey at 5:13. While the Heller/Adler protease experiment is interesting, it’s worth consulting Heller’s book, page 203, to see why and how it was done. Why? It was driven by polemical considerations, wishing to dismiss any idea that the TS image was merely a painting (yes, one small paragraph only being considered necessary!). So the test was not designed as a rigorous one, merely a quickie probe. Had it been rigorous, there would have needed to be pre-selection of one or more image fibres, assessed by some technique that could detect image colour below the ‘serum’ overlay. Instead, fibres were taken from “Image areas”, without any specific reference to the halftone effect and/or discontinuities. In other words, one has no guarantee that a serum-coated fibre from an “image area” is an image-bearing fibre. Indeed it is just as likely to be a non- image one. The identification as an image fibre came AFTER the protease digestion, judged on that corroded-surface, as Hugh mentions. That’s not a lot to go on, given the importance that is attached to this single ‘demonstration’ of the blood-first-image-second dogma.

    Back in 2012, when first being made aware of Shroud Scope (needing a nudge from MarioL himself on this site) I looked closely at blood stains where the shape and colour intensity suggested that parts had flaked off. There were no compelling grounds for thinking there was white space underneath – quite the contrary in fact with hints at least of image continuity, as if the image had been imprinted first. No, it was not conclusive evidence, as was pointed out, and no the technique of eyeballing the Durante images from Shroud Scope is not cutting edge science. But neither was the much-hailed over-hyped Adler/Heller experiment, the trophy result, the ‘jewel in the pro-authenticity crown’.

    But this investigator is not trying to disprove authenticity, merely to rise to Di Lazzaro’s challenge to reproduce the general look and properties of the TS with known science (but maybe with hitherto unknown or forgotten/secret technology), requiring no mysterious energy inputs.

    To that end I have now made a personal decision to view the TS image as having an image-first-blood-second chronology, unless or until hard evidence to the contrary can be supplied. Indeed, I shan’t be researching the blood issue, it not as far as I’m aware having been described as an “enigmatic” property of the TS, apart from the difficulty posed by the allegedly blood-first mantra.

    Back now to my not-so-hopelessly inadequate microscope to look at single teased-out fibres. They have their own drawbacks, btw, given the lack of internal reference points for comparison that means one has to be very, very wary in one’s interpretation. Single fibre study is no panacea, no open sesame. But at least i have a model system that generates half tone effects and discontinuities, as well as explaining why they exist!

  13. August 24, 2015 at 5:35 am

    Just to say I have tracked down the source of the problem in using an ordinary cheapo light microscope to visualize individual fibres. Up till now I have been relying on the microscope’s top illumination lmap only, that giving superior results to illumination from below (or below and above simultaneously). . But the top illumination on my microscope is angled towards the specimen from the viewer’s side, what I call “south” with no facility for altering that angle. Solution: switch off the microscope’s lamp, get yourself a high intensity LED torch, and compare the effect of directing light from all 8 main points of the compass. Do that and one gets some spectacular effects that reveal a lot more information (possibly some of it artefactual) about where the brown image pigmentation is in relation to the fibre and its contents. The best viewing directions are between “north” and “west”.

    Today’s the day for starting a Week 35 posting. I’ll kick of with some photos showing the crucial effect of angle of illumination (“Topic 1”).

    I take back nothing about what I said earlier about the image layer being (probably) below the PCW, possibly the S1 layer with its claimed lignification. It would fit nicely with the “oil migration” hypothesis, given that lignin, unlike carbohydrate, is a resinous substance more friendly and attractive to oils than to water.

    • August 24, 2015 at 8:47 am

      Here’s an attenuated image fibre from the flour-imprinting model in the new ‘north-by-north-west’ illumination mode:

      https://shroudofturinwithoutallthehype.files.wordpress.com/2015/08/illum-7-nw.jpg?w=300&h=225

      I think my “medical-training-conquers-all- (scientists-included)- critic” will find it hard to dismiss that image as the product of incompetent microscopy. ;-)

      It’s the as-is image, with no additional photoediting.

      Click on my blue hyperlinked name to see the same image with that oh-so-dreadful added contrast in my new Week 35 posting (presently Topic 1, with more to follow).

      • Thibault HEIMBURGER
        August 24, 2015 at 3:16 pm

        This ” “medical-training-conquers-all- (scientists-included)- critic” has much more training in microscopy than you.

        I repeat (once again): you can not say anything about the image layer with this kind of picture
        https://shroudofturinwithoutallthehype.files.wordpress.com/2015/08/illum-7-nw.jpg?w=300&h=225

        This is only possible if your are able to show us a picture like Fig. 19 in
        https://shroudofturin.files.wordpress.com/2014/04/scorch-2-eng-final.pdf

        Just compare them.

        But for now I would like to study in detail ” the image one obtains with the more recent flour-imprinting technology (dry flour powder this is, not wet slurry, imprinted onto wet linen). But it’s the final attenuated image -after washing with soap and water – not straight from the oven.”

        I need a picture showing the details, i.e a much more “heavy” image (the final attenuated image only).

        You should upload this large file on a specialized site and then give us a link to download it.

        • August 25, 2015 at 10:32 am

          We are being directed to one of the physician’s prescriptive pdfs, the kind that unhelpfully provides no facility for leaving a comment, despite posturing some might think as a peer-reviewed paper. It’s not of course, wikipedia please note, that alone beinbg sufficient to ignore it entirely, being an abuse of the internet.

          But here’s a observation from a scientist who resents being force-fed the doctor’s medicine. His “Fig 19” in that pdf has the brown colour of a scorched-on image (oh so last year!). When I try to see the current model’s brown image at his level of magnification I see no brown colour? Why not? First, my preferred high-level angled light source (see my site) does not illuminate the linen because the longer objective lens needed or highest magnification blocks the incoming beam. Even when I try to illluminate with an external light source, the image still looks essentially B/W. If I try to illuminate from underneath then it’s entirely B/W.

          So how did our microscopically- privileged physician manage to get that high magnification, high resolution scorch image that somehow managed to capture the brown colour? Was he maybe using an upmarket binocular microscope? If so,methinks, he should have made that clear. He also needs to get up to speed, and try using his apparently oh-so-superior microscope on the current model being proposed. Note btw that it’s a model. Does he understand the meaning of “model”?

  14. piero
    August 24, 2015 at 10:34 am

    Just an half hour ago I have sent the following text:

    Colin,
    Have you become a scientist-guru with eight hands?
    How can you do all those jobs?
    — —
    Lignin changes were indicated by J. Cardamone:
    >… When heat is within the glass transition temperature
    of lignin, 130 C to 190 C, is applied, lignin becomes
    darkly discolored…
    (“Structural features of the flax fiber in general and
    the possible role of Lignin in Image Formation”,
    Symposium at Villa Gualino, Turin, year 2000)
    — —
    In one of the past messages I wrote:
    >… Anyway … don’t you ever faced the problem of
    the presence of iron oxides?
    >If these iron oxide powders are invested by the
    powerful VUV excimer laser then, probably, they produce holes.

    There is a lack of controls for that problem,
    it remain unsolved.
    Here another unsolved problem:
    We still have to deepen the exact penetration power of VUV.
    Can really pass the surface layer (= PCW = Primary Cell Wall)
    of carbohydrates this presumed VUV irradiation?
    I think we need to distinguish between the two laser sources:
    XeCl and ArF…
    So we have to carefully observe what really happens
    on linen fibers and make inherent comparisons.
    — —
    Here I want to add something about the fact that
    Plant cell walls were one of the first biological samples
    that were examined by AFM (Kirby et al., 1996;
    van der Wel et al., 1996).

    Here the details:
    – Kirby AR, Gunning AP, Waldron KW, Morris VJ, Ng A.
    (1996)
    Visualization of plant cell walls by atomic force microscopy.
    Biophys J 70: 1138–1143

    – van der Wel NN, Putman CAJ, vanNoort SJT, deGrooth BG, Emons AMC.
    (1996)
    Atomic force microscopy of pollen grains, cellulose microfibrils,
    and protoplasts.

    Protoplasma 194: 29–39

    Well…
    Here two excerpts from:
    “Tools for Cellulose Analysis in Plant Cell Walls”
    by
    Darby Harris, Vincent Bulone, Shi-You Ding, and Seth DeBolt*

    Plant Physiol. 2010 Jun; 153(2): 420–426.
    Focus Issue on Plant Cell Walls
    Published online 2010 Mar 19.

    >… the relatively new imaging technique of atomic force microscopy
    (AFM) has the capacity to provide atom-level resolution of the
    cellulosic matrix in the cell wall of fresh tissue.
    >Therefore, beyond the compositional structure of cellulose,
    AFM can offer a spatial view of cellulose microfibril orientation
    in the polylaminate cell wall. … … etc. …
    >… Ultimately, AFM imaging representing the native structure
    of cellulose provides an enormous opportunity to better
    understand the molecular architecture in dermal cell layers,
    particularly when combined with the confocal live cell imaging … …

    Link:
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2879802/
    — — —
    AFM could be used to answer some of the key questions
    regarding the nanostructures within plant cell wall cellulose.
    So using the AFM techniques we can also better identify
    the composition of colored thin layers.
    As regards the famous problem of the lack of depth
    (= z direction) with AFM analyses, I think this fact can be
    overcome using samples cut almost at the nanometer level…

    As you already know, Dr. Ray Rogers did underline
    this “z-direction” problem [several years ago] in a message
    (addressed to myself).
    I was not quite prepared for that problem because,
    more than anything else, I had thought the general
    way of accurate measurement of the cellulose chains.
    The BIF (= Body Image Formation) problem was another
    serious problem to solve, but (first of all) I aimed my spear
    (my lance = the AFM tip) toward the assault to the problem
    of true epoch in order to try to solve that first gordian node. …

    — — —
    Having not yet seen my message, then I have resend it.

    Here an addition about what Jeanette Cardamone
    wrote (= an unanswered question) around
    the controversial argument “Lignin”:
    >…It exhibits plasticity and viscous flow.
    >As a thermoplastic resin, lignin congeals upon cooling,
    leaving hard, globular, dark deposits.
    >Did lignin play a role in the formation of the image?

    Source:

    Jeanette Cardamone
    “Structural features of the flax fiber in general and
    the possible role of Lignin in Image Formation”,
    Symposium at Villa Gualino (Turin, year 2000).

    I have not a blind faith about “PCW coloration”,
    see also my words about XeCl and ArF laser imprints …
    and the possible SPMs controls.

    • piero
      August 25, 2015 at 8:11 am

      I do not know what happened yesterday,
      and the appearance of this duplicate of
      my message is certainly a nuisance.
      So I ask to Dan:
      Could you not do anything to remedy that banal problem?

      Instead what yesterday I forgot to write, in my message,
      is the lack of controls with polarized light microscopy
      (on linen samples treated by Colin Berry).
      — — —
      Polarized light microscopy.
      >The polarized light microscope is designed to observe
      and photograph specimens that are visible primarily due
      to their optically anisotropic character.
      >In order to accomplish this task, the microscope
      must be equipped with both a polarizer, positioned in
      the light path somewhere before the specimen, and
      an analyzer (a second polarizer), placed in the optical
      pathway between the objective rear aperture and
      the observation tubes or camera port.
      >Image contrast arises from the interaction of
      plane-polarized light with a birefringent (or doubly-refracting)
      specimen to produce two individual wave components
      that are each polarized in mutually perpendicular planes.
      >The velocities of these components are different
      and vary with the propagation direction through the specimen.
      >After exiting the specimen, the light components become
      out of phase, but are recombined with constructive and
      destructive interference when they pass through the analyzer.
      >Polarized light is a contrast-enhancing technique that
      improves the quality of the image obtained with
      birefringent materials when compared to other techniques
      such as darkfield and brightfield illumination, differential
      interference contrast, phase contrast,
      Hoffman modulation contrast, and fluorescence.

      Link:
      http://www.olympusmicro.com/primer/techniques/polarized/polarizedhome.html

      See also the case of the past hasty claims
      (and the ending result = only a partial truth) by McCrone:
      >…The faint sepia image is made up of billions
      of submicron pigment particles (red ochre and vermilion)
      in a collagen tempera medium.
      >The pigments red ochre and vermilion with the collagen
      tempera medium was a common paint composition
      during the 14th century; before which,
      no one had ever heard of the Shroud.

      Link:
      http://mcri.org/v/64/the-shroud-of-turin

      >Dr. McCrone determined this by polarized light microscopy
      in 1979.
      >This included careful inspection of thousands of linen fibers
      from 32 different areas (Shroud and Sample Points),
      characterization of the only colored image-forming particles
      by color, refractive indices, polarized light microscopy, size,
      shape, and microchemical tests for iron, mercury, and body fluids.
      >The red ochre is present on 20 of both body- and blood-image
      tapes; the vermilion only on 11 blood-image tapes.
      >Both pigments are absent on the 12 non-image tape fibers.
      >The paint pigments were dispersed in a collagen tempera
      (produced in medieval times, perhaps, from parchment).
      >It is chemically distinctly different in composition from blood
      but readily detected and identified microscopically
      by microchemical staining reactions.

  15. August 24, 2015 at 3:53 pm

    This investigator’s research is, and always has been, model driven, the previous three models all to be found in the peer-reviewed literature from 1972-1990. Developing a model requires a degree of single-mindedness, and a willingness to either accept or reject criticism of one’s approach or technique. The conclusion I’ve reached from looking closely a the unsolicted advice, nay prescriptions on this thread, having perhaps a little more experience with microscopy than I’m credited with ( London University A-Levels in Botany and Zoology, as well subsidiary Botany at University) is that the techniques I am using at present are the ones that are yielding new insights on an almost daily basis. Magnification is not everything, and indeed has its problems when dealing with faint images on highly light-refracting fibres.

    While resolution is important, there’s as much if not more to be gained from achieving optimal illumination too, angled from the best direction that can only be found by trial-and-error, dealing as one is with a non-textbook system. For now, this investigator will continue as his ‘own man’ reporting results, encouraging folk to try out the flour-imprinting system for themselves. For the next few days, possibly weeks, I expect to be spending more time with my microscope than following all the twists and turns of debate on shroudstory.com. That’s not a criticism of the site, more a statement of priorities.

  16. August 25, 2015 at 6:20 am

    Here’s an optimized picture, showing that the image colour in the flour-imprint model is more likely to be inside the fibre, i.e. the secondary cell wall, not on the PCW.

    That final enhanced picture has had both maximal colour saturation and increased contrast. Knowing as I do some folk’s reservations or objections to photoediting, I have also displayed the as-is image, and an intermediate stage with maximal colour saturation, but no additional contrast.

    Link to today’s Topic 2, Week 35 posting

    https://shroudofturinwithoutallthehype.wordpress.com/2015/08/24/is-the-shroud-of-turin-really-just-18-years-short-of-its-2000th-birthday-see-this-blog-for-a-daily-acerbic-overview-of-current-wrangling-currently-2015-now-week-35/

    Of itself, the picture proves nothing of course. It’s simply direct and suggestive visual evidence that forms part of model development, the aim being to account for the peculiar properties of the “Shroud” body image, largely reproducible in the model system, notably halftone effect and discontinuities, but, more importantly, to flag up possibly fruitful lines for further experimentation.

    Do I hear the wail of sirens in the distance? Sindonological fire brigade on its way?

  17. piero
    August 25, 2015 at 9:44 am

    If I am right the first main argument
    (for this: “Have we all been looking in the wrong place?”)
    was centered on the following question:
    “Are Di Lazzaro’s laser-generated pulses of uv radiation
    actually targeting that S1 lignin, not “cellulose”?”

    So…
    XeCl laser (308 nm) and ArF laser (193 nm) did produce
    different levels of effects:
    XeCl laser = brownish color
    ArF laser = yellowish coloration

    and,
    starting from that basic difference, we can guess
    something about the (effective) penetration into
    linen fibrils and inherent effects on Lignin molecules…
    because we have to remember
    “the glass transition temperature of lignin, 130 C to 190 C”…
    (Cardamone)
    and then:
    “lignin becomes darkly discolored”…

    But we need also microscopical controls in order
    to conclude the scientific issue with useful
    (= Textile Chemistry) considerations!

    In any case cell walls are composed of cellulose,
    hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin.
    So, firstly, we can try to hypothesize that ArF VUV laser
    (= yellowish coloration) acts mainly on PCW and, after,
    we have to test this hypothesis (and then we can
    work with controls based on AFM techniques).
    Am I wrong in my idea?
    The ArF laser (λ = 0.193 μm, 0.08 J per pulse, 12 ns)
    emits radiation in the VUV spectral region with
    smaller energy and shorter pulse duration than XeCl lasers.
    Observe the Figure n. 7
    of the paper by DI Lazzaro, Murra and Santoni
    (link:
    http://www.frascati.enea.it/fis/lac/excimer/sindone/2012_16_ENEA.pdf).
    = “Microscope image of a single linen fiber colored after
    ArF laser irradiation.” “The mechanical damage in the central part shows
    small pieces of colored primary cell wall on a colorless inner part of the
    fiber” (the average diameter of the fiber is 20 μm).
    Instead the Figure 9a
    shows a linen fabric after ArF laser irradiation when
    it is illuminated with a UV lamp.
    >The area irradiated by the laser emits a much smaller
    blue fluorescence with respect to the linen fabric …

    If linen samples treated with XeCl laser (= brownish color)
    cannot be investigated in a careful manner with AFM
    techniques, then we should apply an “ultramicrotomy
    treatment” to the samples in order to know
    something of useful. But this kind of treatment
    (a destructive manipulation) seems to me a little bad choice…

    Regarding the thermal changes the authors stated that:
    >the linen region irradiated by the UV XeCl laser
    was heated up to 33 °C,
    while the linen irradiated by the VUV ArF laser
    up to 25 °C.
    We can also try to consider
    – Figure 13a. Left: photo of the linen during XeCl laser irradiation.
    – Figure 13b. Left: photo of the linen during ArF laser irradiation.
    and
    their text indicated also the same picture seen in
    infrared light.

    But I have some doubt regarding the exact temperature
    on lignin areas into the linen fibrils…

    Here what Cardamone underlined about Lignin:
    >…it exhibits plasticity and viscous flow.
    >As a thermoplastic resin, lignin congeals upon cooling,
    leaving hard, globular, dark deposits.

    We have not at disposal microscopical images
    (taken at high magnification) in order to verify the morphology
    in order to identify the possible presence of
    “hard, globular, dark deposits” (indicated by Cardamone).
    So…
    What kind of role played Lignin in the formation of
    the color on linen, respectively: in the case of XeCl laser or
    with ArF laser irradiations?

    What is your own opinion?

    • August 25, 2015 at 10:00 am

      Possibly, probably, one of this contributor’s best comments to date, especially given the focus. For some of us at any rate, it will take time to absorb the detail, and catch up on this “Cardamone”. Google here we come.

      • piero
        August 26, 2015 at 9:09 am

        Here other words about “Lignin” (= Ultraviolet Protection Factor and nanolignin application):

        Natural fibers like: jute, sisal, hemp and flax contain in their chemical composition natural pigments and lignin, which are natural UVR absorbers and ensure good protection against UV.
        There is the need to protect humans from harmful UV radiation (thinking to the problems with thinning Ozone layer, skin cancer [melanoma], etc. … etc.)

        Lignin content in flax fibers is only between 0.6–5.0%, in jute near 12%, in sisal near 10% and in hemp fibers between 3.5–5.5%.

        Nanolignin has been used in order to improve the UV properties of natural linen and then application of nanolignin as a UV absorber in the textile finishing process is a very good solution …

        A study on the possibility of using lignin as a UV blocker for fabrics was conducted at the Institute of Natural Fibres in Poland.
        I have found the inherent paper:
        “Nanolignin Modified Linen Fabric as a Multifunctional
        Product”
        by M. Zimniewska, R. Kozłowski, and J. Batog
        Institute of Natural Fibres, Poznan, Poland

        Link:
        http://www.if.ufrrj.br/biolig/art_citados/Nanolignin%20Modified%20Linen%20Fabric%20as%20a%20Multifunctional.pdf

        >Efficient protection against harmful UV radiation for human can be ensured by wearing garment made from bast fibers: linen and hemp, which also provide high use comfort thanks to high hygroscopicity, air permeability and cool touch.
        >This paper describes application of nanolignin as a UV blocker for linen fabrics.
        >Lignin with nano structure obtained by ultrasonic treatment was padded on linen fabrics.
        >The linen fabrics covered by nanolignin show also antibacterial properties.
        >Thanks to nanolignin application for finishing process of linen fabrics, it is possible to obtain multifunctional textile products with the following additional properties:
        UV barrier, antibacterial, antistatic properties guaranteeing positive effect on human physiology.
        — — *** — —
        The size of the nanolignin particles was determined with the use of Transmission Electron Microscopy JEM 1200EX II, Joel.
        Obviously textiles coated by nanolignin have excellent UV protection …

        So the obvious fact of the absorption of UV by nano-lignins could also be of interest to our study on the presence of lignin in the famous “cylindrical zones” of linen fibrils:
        PCW, S1 and S2 …

        • piero
          August 26, 2015 at 9:29 am

          The International Lignin Institute (ILI) is an international professional association, created in 1992, with headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland.
          But … the EUROLIGNIN information reserved to ILI members.

          Links:
          http://www.ili-lignin.com/
          http://www.ili-lignin.com/projects/projects.php
          — — —
          I have found a generic (IMO: useless, because we cannot work on linen fibrils with these methods…) scheme : “Overview of experimental procedures used for lignin isolation.”

          MWL = Milled Wood Lignin
          1. Ball-milled wood is extracted with aq. p-dioxane (4% water) at RT
          2. Extracts are dried and dissolved in acetic acid
          3. Precipitated into water
          4. Dried, then dissolved in ethylene chloride and ethanol, followed by precipitation into diethyl ether

          CEL = Cellulolytic Enzyme Lignin
          1. Ball milled biomass added to cellulase, incubate for 3 days
          2. Wash with water and extract twice with aq. p-dioxane
          3. Dissolve in acetic acid and precipitate into water
          4. Isolate lignin and wash twice with water, suspend in water and freeze-dry

          EMAL = Enzymatic Mild Acidolysis Lignin
          1. Treat ball-milled wood with cellulase
          2. Shake in a water bath using citrate buffer (pH 4.5)
          3. Wash soluble material with acidified DI water twice and freeze-dry
          4. Treat cellulytic lignin with aq. p-dioxane
          5. Filter and neutralize with sodium bicarbonate and add to acidified DI water, leave over night
          6. Remove precipitated lignin, wash with DI water twice and freeze-dry
          — —
          Perhaps we can guess something about the possibility to draw an experiment around an
          “AFM determination of Lignin DP [Degree of Polymer.]”…

  18. piero
    August 25, 2015 at 10:56 am

    I have found a link about the PLM instruments:
    http://www.microscope.com/specialty-microscopes/polarizing-microscopes/
    The prices seem to be high …

  19. August 25, 2015 at 11:04 am

    This kitchen-scientist grew up in postwar austerity Britain, where science, even in university laboratories, was often a case of “making do”, without the luxury of placing orders for the latest oh-so-fashionable this or that. Surprisingly, the country coped ,as the tally of Nobel prizes demonstrates, since what matters at the end of the day are the ideas, not the equipment. Equipment without ideas leads to what is techinically known as STURP syndrome.

    • August 25, 2015 at 12:18 pm

      Many folk, too many in fact, have been led to believe that science is all about establishing facts. Correction: science is primarily about the world of ideas. Establishing the facts is secondary to the ideas.

      It’s because science is primarily about ideas, with facts being secondary, that science is so easily subverted. Read “pseudoscience”. The crucial difference between science and pseudoscience is that ideas in science are put to experimental test, so as to establish certain facts, and if found wanting the ideas are quickly modified or discarded. (Think of it as mental spring-cleaning).

      .One rarely if ever knows the entire facts that have a bearing on a case (thus the difference with a court of law that deals entirely with the existing facts).

      Science can get things entirely wrong, but unlike pseudoscience, it has an ongoing process that can lead to a changing of mind, discarding previous conclusions. Pseudoscience has no such corrective mechanism. It relies entirely on pushing the same old message, year in, year out.

      Beware repetitive messages dressed up as “science”. They are usually pseudoscience.

  20. piero
    August 26, 2015 at 9:52 am

    A wide range of TEM techniques have also been applied
    to investigate the ultrastructural properties of plant cell walls,
    such as conventional ultra-thin sections [References:
    – Abdul Khalil HPS, Alwani, MS, Ridzuan R, Kamarudin, H, Khairul A. Chemical composition, morphological characteristics, and cell wall structure of Malaysian oil palm fibers.
    Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng. 2008; 47:273-280.
    – Abdul Khalil HPS, Yusra AFI, Bhat AH, Jawaid M. Cell wall ultrastructure, anatomy, lignin distribution, and chemical composition of Malaysian cultivated kenaf fiber,
    Ind Crops Prod. 2010; 31:113-121]

    rapid-freezing followed by deep etching
    [Reference: McCann MC, Wells B, Roberts K. Direct visualization of cross-links in the primary plant cell wall. J Cell Sci. 1990; 96:323-334],

    ultrastructural cytochemistry
    [Reference: Fromm J, Rockel B, Lautner S, Windeisen E, Wanner G. Lignin distribution in wood cell walls determined by TEM and
    backscattered SEM techniques. J. Struct. Biol. 2003; 143:77-84 ],

    immunogold
    [Reference: Donohoe BS, Selig MJ, Viamajala S, Vinzant TB, Adney WS, Himmel ME. Detecting cellulase penetration into corn stover cell walls by immuno-electron microscopy. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009; 103:480-9]
    and electron tomography
    [Reference: Xu P, Donaldson LA, Gergely ZR, Staehelin LA. Dual-axis electron tomography: a new approach for investigating the spatial organization of wood cellulose microfibrils. Wood Sci. Technol. 2007; 41:101-116.]

    TEM images of ultra-thin sections of untreated biomass readily distinguished the typical cell wall layers: primary cell wall (PCW), secondary cell wall (SCW) and
    middle lamella (ML). These structures are bonded strongly together, giving rise to the typical dense architecture of cell walls. Potassium permanganate staining has proved to be a reliable technique to track lignin in different cell wall types
    [References:
    Donohoe BS, Decker SR, Tucker MP,Himmel ME, Vinzant TB. Visualizing lignin coalescence and migration through maize cell walls following thermochemical pretreatment. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2008; 101:913–925
    Bland DE, Foster RC, Logan AF. The mechanism of permanganate and osmium tetroxide fixation and the distribution of the lignin in the cell wall of Pinus radiata. Holzforschung. 1971; 25: 137-43
    Donaldson LA, Mechanical constraints on lignin deposition during lignification. Wood Sci. Technol. 1994; 28:111-118] … etc. … etc.

    Link:

    http://www.formatex.info/microscopy5/book/639-645

    sOURCE:
    Microscopy as a tool to follow deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass
    Celso Sant’Anna and Wanderley de Souza

  21. August 26, 2015 at 10:02 am

    I have just had a most exhausting session trying to get the (recommended) sticky tape method to work with my basic microscope, and encountering all kinds of difficulties (choosing to work with an attenuated image sample with very faint image was maybe not a good idea for starters).

    Here’s the ‘best’ result (and thus not necessarily typical), showing an “as is” image fibre on the left, enhanced with extra colour saturation (centre) and finally given the full Holywood treatment right (mainly by adjusting midtone value and contrast).

    https://shroudofturinwithoutallthehype.files.wordpress.com/2015/08/brown-fibre-40x-black-bknd1.png?w=640&h=157

    There’s nothing there that makes me in the least bit inclined to walk away from the proposal, voiced earlier, that the attenuated imaghe that survives washing with soap and water is NOT on the PCW but on the deeper SCW (lignified S1 layer?). If the model is a valid one as regards the TS, not impossible given its ability to produce a halftone coloration and discontinuities. then it’s possible that the “enigmatic’ and allegedly highly superficial image of the TS is not so enigmatic, and maybe not as superficial as claimed. Time will tell. Model development in science (the only real science in my book) is 99% hard slog.

  22. piero
    August 27, 2015 at 7:28 am

    Here what I have found today
    (= “aged lignin composition” and
    “ratio of syringyl to guaiacyl units”…),
    surfing the Web…
    — — — —
    I have just found a vague reference about
    “AFM and Lignin”, title:
    “Composition of Lignin inOuter Cell-Wall Layers”.

    Author:
    Maria Christiernin
    (Doctoral Thesis)

    Royal Institute of TechnologyDepartment of Fibre and Polymer Technology
    Division of Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology
    Stockholm 2006

    Link:
    http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:10498/FULLTEXT01.pdf

    Abstract

    >The composition of lignin in the outer cell-wall layers
    of spruce and poplar has been studiedand the data
    obtained have been compared with those of
    the mature reference wood in which
    the secondary cell wall predominates.
    >Materials with exclusively or predominantly
    outer cell-wall layers were examined.
    >Accurate data relating to the lignin monomer
    composition and thenumber of β-O-4´ bonds
    were obtained from pure middle lamella/primary cell wall lignin.
    >Firstly, a 10 000 year old white spruce material,
    with most of the secondary cell wall missing,was studied.
    >The aged lignin was composed of guaiacyl units only,
    and was slightly morecondensed but otherwise similar to the reference lignin.
    >Secondly, the developing xylem of a Norway spruce clone was analyzed during a growthseason. In spring and early summer, growth is very rapid and the intention was to sampletissues in which the secondary cell-wall layers had not yet lignified, but where the outer layersat least had started to lignify.
    >Microscopy, Klason lignin and carbohydrate analyses showed
    that the lignin in the developing xylem of samples from mid-June was located exclusively inthe middle lamella.
    >The lignin was more condensed, was composed of
    guaiacyl units only andcontained more end-groups than
    the reference Norway spruce wood.
    >Thirdly, the cambial tissues of a Balsam poplar clone
    were surveyed during a growth season.Both the phloem side and the xylem side of the cambial region were examined.
    >The Klason lignin content and carbohydrate monomer
    distribution showed that in June and August thetissues on
    the phloem side contained material with mainly middle
    lamella/primary walls.
    >InJune, the xylem side in the cambial region contained
    mainly middle lamella/primary walls,and in August
    the secondary cell wall carbohydrates were being deposited.
    >Both tissuescontained lignin that was more condensed
    and had more end-groups than the reference lignin.
    >In mid-June, the developing xylem had a ratio of
    syringyl to guaiacyl units of 0.6, whereas the ratio
    for the reference wood was 1.3.
    >In the final study, lignin from the primary cell walls
    from a hybrid aspen cell suspensionculture was investigated.
    >The lignin contained only guaiacyl units which
    were morecondensed than those observed in the
    reference poplar wood.

    Here another reference (about the interesting “ratio of syringyl
    to guaiacyl units”):
    “Structural Characterization of Guaiacyl-rich Lignins
    in Flax (Linum usitatissimum) Fibers and Shives”.
    Author:
    José C. del Río (Spanish National Research Council)
    and other researchers.

    Abstract
    >The structural characteristics of the lignins
    from flax (Linum usitatissimum) fibers and shives
    were studied.
    >Significant differences in the content and
    composition of the lignin from both parts
    were observed.
    >The lignin contents were 3.8% in the fibers
    and 29.0% in the shives.
    >Analysis by Py-GC/MS indicated a H:G:S molar
    ratio of 13:72:15 in the milled wood lignin (MWL)
    isolated from flax fibers and a molar ratio of 5:87:8
    in the MWL isolated from flax shives. In addition,
    2D-NMR showed a predominance of β-O-4′ aryl ether
    linkages, followed by β-5′ phenylcoumaran and β-β’
    resinol-type linkages in both MWLs, with a higher
    content of condensed linkages in flax shives.
    >Thioacidolysis (followed by Raney nickel desulfurization)
    gave further information on the lignin units involved
    in the different linkages and confirmed the
    enrichment of G units.
    >The thioacidolysis dimers released were
    similar from both lignins, with a predominance
    of the β-5′ followed by β-1′ and 5-5′ structures.

    Link:
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/51637223_Structural_Characterization_of_Guaiacyl-rich_Lignins_in_Flax_(Linum_usitatissimum)_Fibers_and_Shives

  1. August 27, 2015 at 5:47 am
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