New Paper: Variations in Image Due to Amounts of Burial Ointments?

imageJust published in Chimica Oggi-Chemistry Today (Vol 33(1) January/February 2015): To suggest evidence for burial ointments in the Shroud of Turin by Giovanni Fazio, Antonio Anastasi and Giuseppe Mandaglio.


In this paper we suggest that observations of the different intensities of the dorsal and ventral images on the Shroud of Turin can be accounted for by the presence of burial ointments and/or perfumes. This is a new approach, valuable because of the strong disagreement between the results of various previous experiments to determine chemical substances on the Shroud. We will show that the image intensity of both images varies measurably and consistently between the dorsal and ventral images, in areas that nevertheless represent the same cloth-body distance, and suggest that this variation is due to the different amount of burial ointments covering the upper and lower surfaces of the body as it lay on the cloth.

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11 thoughts on “New Paper: Variations in Image Due to Amounts of Burial Ointments?”

  1. Dan, it can be automatically downloaded.
    One needs to wait and see what those in the field of science will say. I did not find it convincing, it is something like the Maillard effect that has been proposed. My next article will be online shortly.

  2. Very interesting paper and it will help many to understand why different grey scales were produced of the negative image on the shroud of Turin. Furthermore it help to understand why the image on the Shroud of Turin cannot be produce by a painter.

  3. That’s funny, Jesus was buried like the other Jews during the period. Why did none of them leave images on burial shrouds? Herod was buried with tons of spices and the rest….

    1. According to New Testament Jesus was resurrected but not the Herod. Image may have got printed during the resurrection process. Neither Average Human being nor a Scientist don’t anything about this resurrection process. That is why still we are stuggling to understand how the image was formed on the Shroud of Turin.

      Hope one day someone can find that process.

      1. Sorry. typo

        Neither Average Human being nor a Scientist don’t know anything about this resurrection process.

      2. Agreed, but as I wrote earlier the paper is suggesting something like a a Maillard process. My next Shroud article will be online shortly, dwelling on the image formation process. Keep tuned. Your views are welcome.

  4. In the paper of Fazio I have not found the word: “chromatography”.

    I remember that I wrote something about IGC (= inverse Gas Chromatography)
    in the past (in October 25, 2012)…
    >Do you know the IGC (= Inverse Gas Chromatography) ?
    >What is the surface energy of linen samples in the different kind of experiments ?
    >Until now we have read anything about this question in the studies about the Holy Shroud of Turin.
    >Why ?
    >Perhaps Al Adler (a well known chemist) has considered that question, but I have found nothing in the interesting collection of the papers by Adler.
    >Am I wrong ?

    The argument to debate in this blog was the following:
    “Comment Promoted: Denis Mannix on his proposal” (2012)
    — —
    Se also the paper by Mannix (only two pages):

    Click to access n74part2.pdf

    — —
    Here another message sent from myself on this blog
    (October 25, 2012 at 10:12 am):

    >… if you want understand the meaning of the IGC-way, in my opinion, you have to be focused on the following question :
    >What is Inverse Gas Chromatography ?
    >Answer :
    >Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is different from the GC,
    because in IGC analytic way it is the adsorbent stationary phase that is under investigation and known molecules are injected into the mobile phase act as a probe. It is through this inversion of the role of the phases that IGC gets its name.
    >The application of IGC is typically in regards to studying the surface (= surface energy…) property of a solid adsorbent and therefore the principles and theory correspond to that of
    traditional adsorption chromatography …
    … …
    >… I have some doubt about the presumed great amount of aromas during the burial rite, etc.
    >Unfortunately the interesting study (= intensity of the Shroud body image versus the cloth-body distance, etc.) by Giovanni Fazio, titled :
    The original presence of burial ointments on the Turin Shroud (2006 = an old paper. Now there are other studies by Fazio and C.),
    >source :

    Click to access FAZIO2.PDF

    >seems to be inconclusive.

    Here the title of the paper (= ) =
    “The original presence of burial ointments on the Turin Shroud”
    … and here the beginning of the Abstract:
    >The research of aromas and burial ointments on the Shroud of Turin, by microchemical and spectroscopic measurements, has furnished various results. Therefore, we have investigated the effects that the above substances, if present, could have produced
    on the body image characteristics …. …
    — — —

    See for example :
    the “photographic plate”
    by Paul Joseph Vignon (born in 1865)
    and René Colson (prof. of Physics at Polytechnic School of Paris)

    Colson found ancients recipes and from the old writings was discovered
    that myrrh and aloes were worked with olive oil in order to obtain a paste
    that subsequently was distributed on sepulchral linen …
    In other words:
    a cloth impregnated with that emulsion produces
    different levels of browning under alkaline vapors…

    >Source ?
    … the same booklet (= “La Santa Sindone”, ed. Mursia, August 1978,
    Chapter VIII : “The believer and the agnostic”, p 101) indicated by Fazio … :
    Thomas Humber, “The Sacred Shroud”, Pocket Books
    — —
    See also:

    But oils seem to be incompatible with the bloodstains
    that are observed on the Shroud…
    If I am right oils seem to produce smearing for bloodstains.

    What is your exact ideas concerning the use of oil (oil !?!?!??) and burial spices
    or about “original presence of perfumes and/or burial ointments”?
    Sorry, here I have no “Likert scales” to test your behavior… !

    1. In the paper by Fazio and others there is not the name “Yannick Clément”…
      Perhaps he didn’t believed in the presence of oils…
      Am I wrong in my simple supposition?
      I am curious to read what will be the answer by Yannick …
      — — — — —
      Here another paper:
      Journal of Materials Science
      20030515, Volume 38, Issue 10, pp 2205-2208
      “The characterisation of cotton fabrics and the interaction
      with perfume molecules by inverse gas chromatography (IGC)”


      >IGC is a versatile tool in the characterisation of textile products and the interaction of these materials with fragrance molecules due to the wide range of physicochemical parameters, which can be determined by this technique.

      >This is demonstrated by means of cotton wool and cotton fabrics.
      >Alkanes, fragrance molecules and other polar probes have been used to measure interaction parameters such as dispersive component of surface energy and specific free energy in different experimental conditions (relative humidity, concentration, cotton sample type).

      1. IGC = Inverse Gas Chromatography

        In IGC the roles of solid and gas are inverted compared to classical analytical gas chromatography.
        In IGC, a column filled with the solid sample to be investigated and a single gas (probe molecule) is injected.
        The aim of this characterisation technique is to determine the thermodynamic surface properties and surface morphological aspect of linen or/and cotton fibres.
        The surface characterisation by Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC)
        has been recommended by several papers.

        I have read that IGC method is the better method to determine the energetic properties of fibers than wetting technique …

        When you want to properly speak about the surface of that Ancient Linen, then you can try to do something using IGC, because testing the hypothesis of “natural production by stochastic process” you require (at least) some basic data …

        The basic tools for IGC are inexpensive,
        widely available and well suited for routine
        laboratory applications.
        Then the application of inverse gas chromatography
        seems to be easy, cheap and quick!

        Physiochemical data.
        You can consider dispersive component of surface energy
        and specific free energy in different experimental conditions.

        In 1936 Joel H. Hildebrand (who laid the foundation for solubility theory in his classic work on the solubility of nonelectrolytes in 1916) proposed the square root of the cohesive energy density as a numerical value indicating the solvency behavior of a specific solvent.

        Then Hildebrand solubility parameter for a pure liquid substance is defined as the square root of the cohesive energy density.
        Here I presume you know the heat of vaporization,
        V(index m) = the molar volume, RT (from the Ideal Gas law
        [Liter atm / mole K] * K = [L atm / mol] )
        and the energy of vaporization….

        The partial pressures of all of the components in a mixture of real gases depend
        on the types of molecules and the temperature. At constant temperature,
        the internal energy of a mixture remains constant; however,
        the partial pressures of the components depend on their “fugacity.”
        In any case we can expect that the chemical researchers are able to work using the IGC …
        Unfortunately Rogers passed away in 2005.
        I can recommand you to read a polish paper (in english) published in 2008:
        “Inverse gas chromatography as a source of physiochemical data”
        (read, at the end of this message, the bibliographic reference)
        because IGC could be called a milestone in testing properties
        of liquid and solid materials.

        Typical units are hildebrand :
        1 hildebrand = (1 cal )^1/2 (1 cm)^-3/2 = 0.48888 (Mega Pascal)^1/2

        The conventional units for the solubility parameter are (calories per cm3)^1/2, or: (cal)^1/2 (cm)^−3/2.

        See also :
        Hildebrand’s delta.

        Hildebrand solubility parameter is also known as three-dimensional solubility parameters or HSP because Hansen proposed an extension of the Hildebrand parameter
        in order to estimate relative miscibility of polar and hydrogen bonding systems.

        There is a formula to calculate the distance (Ra) between Hansen parameters in Hansen space.
        Combining this with the interaction radius gives the relative energy difference (RED) of the system (the ratio Ra/R0, where R0 is a value called interaction radius that is given to the substance being dissolved).
        Historically Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) have been used in industries such as paints and coatings where understanding and controlling solvent/polymer interactions was vital. Over the years their use has been extended widely…


        For molecules whose heats of vaporization can be measured (… or calculated) one can determine the value of delta.
        There are three delta components (Hansen evaluation system):
        – dispersion
        – electrostatic
        – hydrogen bonding

        Do you know HSP (= Hansen Solubility Parameters) for myrrhoaloetic oils ?
        Perhaps you can try to do some easily experiments using methane or propane gas
        in your cooling room (both are explosive gases when mixed with air: warning, take care!!!).
        — —
        I have read that:
        the retention volume is calculated from the retention time
        and the partial pressure from the peak/step height.
        Since the retention volume represents the first derivation of the adsorbed amount,
        integration gives the isotherm.
        Perhaps other bloggers can contribute
        developing this argument…
        — —
        As previously wrote I don’t believe in oil’s presence.
        Years ago I have read something about an
        “Unguentum Apostolorum”.
        An oily, viscous substance, indicated by Norma Weller (now a deceased researcher),
        who also wrote something about an archaeological expert in ancient forms of burial and embalming…

        IGC can be employed to explore changes in surface energy
        (see, for example : Corona Discharge treatments, etc. …)
        IGC became very popular method for the measurement
        of physico-chemical properties of solid materials.
        Therefore Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC), at infinite dilution, can be used
        to determine thermodynamic parameters of adsorption, such as free energy, enthalpy
        and entropy, as well as the dispersion component of surface free energy,
        and the interaction parameter.
        Then Inverse Gas Chromatography can be an useful tool to use
        in the case of experiments about thymol treatments (see: the inherent old claims)…

        I am curious to see what happens with natural linen samples, natural treated linen
        and modern/commercial linen samples. Perhaps they should show a smaller surface energy
        due to the additional treating ingredients and processing methods…

        In any case, I hope in your interesting answers…


        Bibliographic references :

        – D.R. Lloyd, T.C. Ward, H.P. Schreiber (Eds.),
        Inverse Gas Chromatography – Characterization of Polymers and Other Materials
        (ACS Symposium Series No. 391), American Chemical Society, Washington,
        DC, 1989, p. 230.

        – Inverse gas chromatography as a source of physiochemical data
        Adam Voelkel, Beata Strzemiecka, Katarzyna Adamska, Kasylda Milczewska
        Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 1551–1566

        [So … After twenty years : 1989 – 2009,
        that way always seemed to be interesting]

        – Hildebrand and Hansen Solubility Parameters from Molecular Dynamics
        with Applications to Electronic Nose Polymer Sensors
        M. Belmares, M. Blanco and other researchers
        Journal of Computational Chemistry,
        Vol. 25, No. 15
        Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

        – Belgacem M.N., Czeremuszkin G. and Sapieha S. 1995.
        Surface characterization of cellulose fibers by XPS and inverse gas chromatography.
        Cellulose 2: 345-157.

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