(only the English Edition was searched)
Do you recall when Wikipedia had a small article on the Shroud of Turin. That article now, if you print it out, is 22 pages long followed by 13 pages of references. But that is not enough. In addition to the main article, Shroud of Turin, there are other articles that include “Shroud of Turin” in the title:
- Conservation of the Shroud of Turin
- Shroud of Turin Research Project
- History of the Shroud of Turin
- Radiocarbon 14 dating of the Shroud of Turin
There are articles about many shroud researchers. Here are some of them in no particular order:
- Secondo Pia
- Walter McCrone
- Raymond Rogers
- Isabel Piczec
- Barbara Frale
- Frederick Zugibe
- Gilbert R. Lavoie
- Ian Wilson (author)
- Pierre Barbet (physician)
- Yves Delage
And there are articles with significant discussion of the shroud
- Pray Codex
- Image of Edessa
- Sudarium of Oviedo
- Veil of Veronica
- Manoppello Image
- VP8 Image Analyzer
- Chapel of the Holy Shroud
- Turin Cathedra
- Royal Palace of Turin
Altogether, 430 Wikipedia English edition articles mention the Shroud of Turin according to Google.
It seems to be placed in front of a sort of beginning for the “Encyclopedia of the Shroud”.
By the way: I remember the book of Dr. Mario Cappi that I bought many years ago (in Milan), he proposed a sort of dictionary, “La Sindone dalla A alla Z” = “The Shroud from A to Z” …
In any case those links lead to some very interesting information …
But I would go back to the problem previously reported …
How can you recognize an ancient linen fiber from a less ancient?
From what you could start to try to solve that problem?
Engineer Giulio Fanti indicated three methods…
Now, going beyond the criticism about the “mechanical dating” model, I would like to point out a study:
“Signature of ageing: correlations with behavior”, by Paul Wyeth
and then … it is important to understand the microstructural modifications
that can occur on natural fibers ageing …
See also : the controls on CNC (Cellulose Nano Crystals), on cellulosic DP (Degree of Polymerization), etc.
In short, I suggest you return to my old obsession: the SPM analysis (on linen fibrils
and thin layers)…
Any comment ?
In other words: we require a careful study designed to correlate (using SPM controls) the degree of polymerization (DP) [and CNC content / morphology of microfibrils] of the ancient linen fibrils with the epoch…
Here a bibliographic reference about the Metrology:
Development of the metrology and imaging of cellulose nanocrystals
Michael T Postek, András Vladár, John Dagata, Natalia Farkas, Bin Ming, Ryan Wagner,
Arvind Raman, Robert J Moon, Ronald Sabo, Theodore H Wegner and James Beecher
The development of metrology for nanoparticles is a significant challenge. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are one group of nanoparticles that have high potential economic value but present substantial challenges to the development of the measurement science. Even the largest trees owe their strength to this newly appreciated class of nanomaterials. Cellulose is the world’s most abundant natural, renewable, biodegradable polymer. Cellulose occurs as whisker-like microfibrils that are biosynthesized and deposited in plant material in a continuous fashion. The nanocrystals are isolated by hydrolyzing away the amorphous segments leaving the acid resistant crystalline fragments. Therefore, the basic raw material for new nanomaterial products already abounds in nature and is available to be utilized in an array of future materials. However, commercialization requires the development of efficient manufacturing processes and nanometrology to monitor quality. This paper discusses some of the instrumentation, metrology and standards issues associated with the ramping up for production and use of CNCs.
— — — — — — — — — —
Here other references…
– about the Transverse Modulus:
Transverse Elasticity of Cellulose
Nanocrystals Via Atomic Force Microscopy
Ryan Wagner, Arvind Raman, and Robert Moon
– bout cell walls:
Micromechanics of Cell Walls
Ingo Burgert and John W.C. Dunlop
Please: observe the cell wall assembly as a composite structure…
and the elastic modulus as a function of cellulose microfibril angle in the secondary cell wall (for various species, included flax…) …
Do you want to improve your knowledges on hierarchical materials ?
Nature’s hierarchical materials
Peter Fratzl, Richard Weinkamer
(Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Department of Biomaterials, Potsdam, Germany)
a paper published in :
Progress in Materials Science 52 (2007) 1263–1334
.. the basic knowledges about
Materials with structural hierarchy
The hierarchical structure and mechanics of plant materials
Lorna J. Gibson
DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2012.0341Published 7 November 2012
The cell walls in plants are made up of just four basic building blocks: cellulose (the main structural fibre of the plant kingdom) hemicellulose, lignin and pectin. Although the microstructure of plant cell walls varies in different types of plants, broadly speaking, cellulose fibres reinforce a matrix of hemicellulose and either pectin or lignin. The cellular structure of plants varies too, from the largely honeycomb-like cells of wood to the closed-cell, liquid-filled foam-like parenchyma cells of apples and potatoes and to composites of these two cellular structures, as in arborescent palm stems. The arrangement of the four basic building blocks in plant cell walls and the variations in cellular structure give rise to a remarkably wide range of mechanical properties: Young’s modulus varies from 0.3 MPa in parenchyma to 30 GPa in the densest palm, while the compressive strength varies from 0.3 MPa in parenchyma to over 300 MPa in dense palm. The moduli and compressive strength of plant materials span this entire range. This study reviews the composition and microstructure of the cell wall as well as the cellular structure in three plant materials (wood, parenchyma and arborescent palm stems) to explain the wide range in mechanical properties in plants as well as their remarkable mechanical efficiency.
… and there would still be many more studies to read!!!
But the sad thing is that the links both to the shroud.com and shroudstory.com have been removed from Wikipedia by someone obviously ‘knowing better’.
Shouldn’t Wikipedia be informed?
Well, O.K., you know there are some who know better than everyone else. I say let’s give ALL the information for & against and rack and stack and let people make their own determination. I prefer honesty and openness to hiding some information to support one view over another. The truth always comes out, I don’t want to be part of the obfuscation that sometimes happens naturally (nope, I have no one in mind and am blaming no one).
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