Interesting paper. For those of us interested in comparing images to the face on the Shroud of Turin (or if we are just plain interested in this stuff as we should be) it is worth the several minutes to read. Studies in Art History: The Thinking Behind Abstraction; Tessellated Transcendence and the Philosophy of Islamic Filigree
This paper examines the similarities and differences between Platonic Pythagoreanism(1) and Abrahamic(2) Pythagoreanism within the art and doctrine of Islam, Judaism and Christianity with particular reference to Islamic Art.
From a footnote:
Leonardo da Vinci’s (1452 –1519 CE) devotion to this principal is evident throughout his works. An example of this can be seen in the Mona Lisa’s face which fits perfectly into a golden rectangle, and rest of the painting is structured around similar rectangles. Even the image of Christ on the Shroud of Turin adheres to the same proportions as the Mona Lisa, they match perfectly.