Request for Help: Can you point me to some information on Roman scourging?

this is, of course, what we do best: answer questions

Kenneth K. Vernor writes:

I am a new student in the shroud world, but I am about 98% convinced it is legitimate.

I am interested in studying the scourging in depth.  Mostly, I would like to read accounts of HOW the Romans scourged.

So far I have come across these methods:

The two most common seem to be tied with His hands above His head facing a column or a small post and tied to a low post.  The third one is suspension by His hands with 100 lbs of weight tied to the feet.  And I found one reference that mentions being tied between two columns.

In all instances He was naked.

I have also read accounts where salt was applied to the wounds.  In another salt water was dumped on Him if He passed out.

I have read two well researched papers on scourging (Scourge bloodstains on the Turin Shroud: an evidence for different instruments used by Barbara Faccini, New Image Processing of the Turin Shroud Scourge Marks by Barbara Faccini and Giulio Fanti) that differs from Zugibe’s book.  While Zugibe wrote a great book, I do believe he missed the boat on the scourging.  He thought the Romans did the Jewish thing and limited the beating to 40 strokes.  I do not know why he would think that.  They didn’t follow other Jewish rules like where to administer the strokes.  Plus, I am confident the Man of the shroud had well over 40 strokes.  (Zugibe counted over 100 and using a three thonged flagrum, that would fit in his window.  However, I would assume the Body had many more scourge marks that are not imaged on the shroud; on the sides and under the arms.  Faccini counted 196 flagrum marks with a total of 372 including all the marks.)

At any rate, these two papers show scourge marks across the middle of the chest.  I would think this may point to the suspension method. (with another type of whip also being used) Acts 22:25 seems to also support this method.   What do you think?

Can you point me to some information on Roman scourging?  I think I have searched the web thoroughly.

I have also been in contact with Barrie Schwortz.  He has been great.

Thank you for your time.

Picture:  Peter Paul Rubens, Flagellation of Christ, Antwerp, Church of St. Paul. ca. A.D. 1616. Source: Wikimedia (Wikipedia), hot linked with permissions.