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Keyword: ‘Mandylion’

More on the Long Cloth Mandylion

July 8, 2014 Comments off


(Please comment in the original Long Cloth Mandylion thread.)

Rice Professor writes:

Here are some possibly useful links. These links contain the picture in question. Plan to use Google translate unless you are brilliant. I think this is a picture of the shroud.

(Please comment in the original Long Cloth Mandylion thread.)

Categories: Art, History Tags: ,

A Long Cloth Mandylion?

July 8, 2014 24 comments

O.K. writes:

Some time ago I found an interesting illustration of a "long" Mandylion. First in the Holger Kersten&Elmar Gruber book "Jezus ofiarą spisku" (the polish edition of The Jesus Conspiracy) I provide a scan from it [Illustration1]. The picture is not adressed anywhere in the book, and as the source is given simply "Bibliothéque Nationale". The same picture is reproduced in Antonio Teseo blog, who gives the source as Bibliothéque Nationale, ms lat.2688, dated 1280-85.

Another time when I saw this illustration is in Francesac Saracino 2007 documentary LaSacra Sindone; la storia. [Illustration2]. It confirmed that the illustration is generally monochromatic. However it is certain that the cloth is "long" (just look on the position of hands and the frame [Illustration3]), even though nothing more except the face is seen on it. It shows that the cloth have been considered by some as much larger than often claimed, larger than just handkerchief. Possibly large enough to contain the image of the whole body (as implied by Codex Vossianus and Ordericus Vitalis), even though, as I said, only face is depicted on the presented illustration.

Illustration 1:


Illustration 2:


Illustration 3:


Mandylion of Edessa Images

May 16, 2014 3 comments

imageSr. Ann sends along a link on Pinterest to: 

A collection of photo images related to the "Mandylion of Edessa", a semi-legendary relic of Christianity, a square or rectangular piece of cloth bearing the image of the face of Jesus Christ, which first appeared in the city of Edessa in the 6th century. Many believe that this relic and the face on the Shroud of Turin are one and the same.

I count 29 different images, all with captions and most with extended captions. Interesting. It should be a useful reference.

Pinterest seems interesting. I tried a search with “Mandylion of Edessa” and got similar, but different, results. It is different than Google Images.

Categories: Art, History

New Book: The Templar Mandylion

April 15, 2014 27 comments

imageThere is a new book out. It’s called the The Templar Mandylion: Secret story of Turin ShroudThe Templar Mandylion: Secret story of Turin Shroud by Franck Gordon. Amazon sells it for the Kindle. No other editions seem to be available.

Description at Amazon:

The body of a man strangely vanished a long time ago. This man left behind him historical and physical clues about his existence. This is one of the greatest enigmas of our time.

Editorial Review by the author as it appears at Amazon:

During my life, I have devoted my hobbies to do research on archaeological, religious and scientific enigmas. Intrigued by all that is mysterious and unusual, it is with a mind of engineer that I analyzed unexplained mysteries and impossible objects found on our planet.

imageThere is several years ago, while I was preparing my Templar Saga, I discovered a « Templar Mandylion » in Britanny. This historical and religious mystery still remains unsolved to date. Is it the « Baphomet » venerated by the Templars and which led them to the stake? I tried to explain this mystery in my book « Le Code Templier » and during a lecture made in the chapel of Sainte-Marie du Menez-Hom, near the site of my discovery.

For many years I presented my ideas during lectures on the subjects of my research: Worldwide Genealogy and Huge Databases, Camera Obscura and Shroud of Turin, Templar Mandylion and Baphomet, Popol-Vuh and Terraforming of planets, moons, etc… I explained all these topics, and many others, in novels and essays such as the Mormon Case, the Templar Code, the Templar of America, the Templar Mandylion, and the Popol-Vuh. I propose now all these works in book exhibitions, at the end of my lectures or on the web.

I would like to warmly thank my readers for their comments posted on the web, or received by e-mail or by letter. Come on Cirac website in the Book Club that I created with the help of writers, journalists, publishers and booksellers. You’ll found authors, books, lectures, articles, and also a lot of ideas.

I believe that the Franck Gordon is a nom de plume for SSG shroud researcher François Gazay.

I’m not suggesting that you do not buy the book. But first you may want to read Relations of a Breton Calvary with the Shroud and the Templar Knights by François that was presented at Dallas 2005. And when you go over to Amazon, click on Look Inside. BTW, I do find this subject fascinating.

Categories: Books

Questions concerning the Mandylion hypothesis proposed by Ian Wilson

June 29, 2012 138 comments

imageAs readers of this blog know, Yannick Clément disputes many of Ian Wilson’s historical conclusions. Yannick has written an article and asked me to post it here (in PDF form). Enjoy, think about it and offer your comments. I know: much as been said about this already. But Yannick has pulled it together into this one article with some newly organized material. It warrants our attention,

Article link: Many questions concerning the Mandylion hypothesis proposed by Ian Wilson !!!

Categories: History, News & Views


December 10, 2015 22 comments

A Guest Post by O.K.

imageIt is well known that after the transfer to Constantinople in 944, all Byzantine descriptions of Mandylion and the Shroud (Constantine Porphyrogenitus, Gregory Referendarius, Nicholas Mesarites) are deliberately vague. The true nature of the Mandylion/Shroud had to remain secret, for the reasons I will discuss next time. We can only guess properties of the Mandylion/Shroud from several allusions. Several of those allusions (pointing to the identity between Shroud and Mandylion and great confusion of the academic community) were discussed in my old posting on Dan’s blog. Today I want to present another allusion, which (what is very strange to me) was ommited by all historians’ elaborations regarding the Mandylion known to me.

In Mark Guscin’s english translation of the 944 sermon of Gregory Referendarius, in chapter 13 we can find a very interesting remark, no historian, as far as I know, paid a proper attention to:

Who is like you, God, doing everything in wisdom from times of old? […] You wiped clean the sweat of the nature you had taken on and what was wiped clean was transformed into an image of your unchanging form, just like Adam’s form was drawn out of the ground, like the eyes of nature in the folds of the kneaded earth. (my emphasis).

Here we have a comparison between creation of Adam, the First Man (and naked, just like the Man of the Shroud -cf. Genesis, chapter 2) and creation of the form of Jesus on the Mandylion. What is the significance of that? I think it is great.

The main "argument" (or should I say pseudo-argument because it has been undermined long ago) is the conviction that the Mandylion contained nothing else, but only image of the face of Jesus. There are of course documents telling otherwise (like Codex Vossianus Latinus Q69), ignored usually by narrow-minded majority of academic scholars, but with regards to the Adam reference in Gregory Referendarius other question arises:

If Mandylion contained only the face, do those wise guys think that Adam’s form drawn out of the ground consisted only of the face?

IMHO, this is ridiculous. The reference to Adam makes sense only if it is an allusion to the fact, that the Mandylion contained the image of the whole body.

Just like the (again deliberately ambiguous!) reference to the side wound (chapter 22 of the Gregory Referendarius’ sermon).

So, based on the contemporary accounts (Constantine Porphyrogenitus, Symeon Magister, Gregory Referendarius, see Daniel Scavone’s paper Acheiropoietos: Jesus Images in Constantinople: the Documentary Evidence ) we can make a list of several allusions (except for #2 not clearly stated facts, which, I should stress once again, is deliberate) to the properties of the Mandylion:

1. It contained bloodstains

2. The image on the Mandylion was very faint, "sweat-like".

3. The reference to the Adam makes sense only if it was an allusion to the fact that the Mandylion contained the whole body (which was mentioned in later, Latin versions of the Abgar story, like Codex Vossianus Latinus Q69)

4. The allusion to the side wound -suggest presence of the whole body image and the side wound.

There is only one known object in the world that fits those "allusions" -the Shroud of Turin.

Categories: Guest Posting

Ian Wilson’s 1978 Book for a Penny

September 2, 2015 1 comment

Hurry. There are only 83 copies available at this price.


imageimageThe Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus Christ? Hardcover – 1978

by Ian Wilson (Author)

11 customer reviews

See all 4 formats and editions

Note: This item is only available from third-party sellers (see all offers).

One of the most baffling questions concerning the Shroud’s authenticity is how – and where – it was preserved through the centuries. Ian Wilson traces the history of the cloth from its creation almost two thousand years ago. He propsess ingeniuos solutions to the gaps in its history – explanations that link the Shroud to the Mandylion that belonged to the Emperors of Constantinople, to legends of Veronica’s Veil and the Holy Grail, as well as to the powerful Knight’s Templars of Medieval Europe. The Shroud Of Turin is a fascinating detective story that offers some intriguing answers to questions that have surrounded this frail piece of linen for centuries.

Hat tip to Joe Marino

Categories: Books

From Constantinople to Lirey through the Sainte-Chapelle

August 4, 2015 88 comments


Between the date of this exposition in 1203 and the first exposition of the Shroud of Turin
at Lirey around 1356, there is a 153-year gap.  . . .   This silence was simply due to the lack of knowledge and attention by the Latins to the most obscure relic in the Grande Châsse
at the Sainte-Chapelle. The Shroud of Turin was lying silently in a reliquary of the Sainte-Chapelle waiting to be discovered by a more attentive and humble group of clerics.

Mario Latendresse writes to inform us about a long posting he made “about the thesis of the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris, which would explain the transfer of the Mandylion from Constantinople to Lirey through the Sainte-Chapelle.”  He provides:

An Introduction  &

Full text of the arguments in favor of the thesis of the Sainte-Chapelle

Take the time to carefully read both postings. The following from Mario’s conclusion may whet your appetite.

It is almost certain that the reliquary of the Mandylion did reach the Sainte-Chapelle as part of the relics ceded by Baudoin II to his relative Louis IX, and it is very likely that the Mandylion was in its reliquary. The size of the Mandylion, which is a cloth, appears large because 1) the first inventory states explicitly that it is large; 2) the Golden Bull of 1247 as well as the first inventory of the Grande Châsse does not mention any portrait in the reliquary and all the late reliquaries mention an image at the bottom of the reliquary, therefore the cloth appeared large enough to hide that image; 3) because no image is mentioned in the first inventory and the Golden Bull, the cloth also appears folded; 4) the reliquary of the Mandylion was large enough to contain a folded cloth as large as the Shroud of Turin, as a matter of fact, it was just the right size to do so. It is also likely that the Mandylion disappeared from the Sainte-Chapelle between the early 14th century and the early 16th century based on the presence of a cloth mentioned in the first inventory and the Golden Bull although none are mentioned starting in the early 16th century.

In natural sciences, it is customary to formulate an hypothesis to compare it to the observations. It is also a process that is easy to do because once an hypothesis is well described, the comparison is systematic and simple. That same process can be applied to the inventories, which are mainly observations about the reliquaries and relics. In the following, we propose two opposite hypotheses about the Mandylion and its reliquary and compare them to the inventories to see which hypothesis is the most coherent. The first one is similar to Andrea Nicolotti’s hypothesis whereas the second one is based on the thesis that the Mandylion is the Shroud of Turin.


Between the date of this exposition in 1203 and the first exposition of the Shroud of Turin at Lirey around 1356, there is a 153-year gap. The thesis of the Sainte-Chapelle explains this silence without referring to a complex and obscure scenario. This silence was simply due to the lack of knowledge and attention by the Latins to the most obscure relic in the Grande Châsse at the Sainte-Chapelle. The Shroud of Turin was lying silently in a reliquary of the Sainte-Chapelle waiting to be discovered by a more attentive and humble group of clerics.

How and why the Mandylion was passed to Geoffroy de Charny has not been discussed. But we can already see that the appearance of the Shroud at Lirey occurred during the disappearance of the Mandylion at theSainte-Chapelle….

The photograph, above, is appearing through an electronic window into Mario website. CLICK HERE or on the photograph to see a full size version of it on his site. The caption reads:

An elevated baldachin on a platform at the same location where the Grande Châsse containing the relics of Constantinople were kept in the choir of the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris.

© Mario Latendresse. Photo taken 26 April 2015.

More Testing? Maybe.

April 13, 2015 15 comments

If Papa Francesco will want to’ take this path, we will do it as long as the research
is conducted with honest ‘intellectual, without preconceptions and ideological
assumptions a priori.

— Archbishop of Turin, Monsignor Cesare Nosiglia

imageThe following is a Google translation of an article, The Shroud: the linen cloth that wrapped Jesus, between mystery and science, appearing in

The Lead:

The Catholic Church does not comment officially on the question of authenticity, leaving science to examine the evidence for and against, but authorizes the cult as a relic or icon of the Passion of Jesus

The article:

Tradition identifies it as the sheet used to wrap the body of Jesus’ in the tomb, but the history of the Shroud – that from 19 April to 24 June will be ‘on display in Turin Cathedral – and’ marked by many mysteries, as well as continuous disputes on Authenticity ‘of the relic. The Shroud and ‘a linen sheet, rectangular in shape and dimensions of about 442 × 113 cm, on which and’ visible double image ‘negative’ of the body of a man subjected to a series of tortures and finally crucified. At the top and bottom of the image and ‘marked by the traces of the fire that development’ in 1532 in the chapel of the castle of Chambery, where it was kept the sheet folded in a box of silver. The exposition in 2015 and ‘the second after the restoration of 2002, in which you removed the patches that had been affixed by the Poor Clares of Chambery.

All historians believe documented the history of the relic from the middle ‘of the fourteenth century, the date of his appearance. On his previous history and its antiquities ‘there’ agreement: radiometric dating with the technique of Carbon 14, performed in 1988 and considered inadequate by the same creator, American chemist Willard Libby, has dated the construction of the sheet between 1260 and 1390, but supporters of authenticity ‘of the relic argue that the samples used could also come from parts mended after the fire of 1532. Some scholars believe that the Shroud is the authentic burial cloth of Jesus’. According to these the Shroud of Turin dates back to the first-century Palestine. Then enjoys much credit to the hypothesis that it is to be identified with the ‘mandylion’ or ‘Image of Edessa’, an image of Jesus’ very venerated by Eastern Christians, who died in 1204 (this would explain the absence of documents which refer to the Shroud in that period). Countless scientific tests and forensic where the find and ‘was submitted. Shroud studies of 1981, made from Italian alien autopsy and by Americans Heller and Adler, found on samples of wire traces of human blood group AB; For its part the Swiss biologist Frei Sulzer identified on the cloth pollens of over 50 plants, present not only in Europe but also in the Palestinian areas and the Anatolian. Israeli researchers have also found traces of particular plants belonging to the area of ​​Jerusalem.

The Catholic Church does not comment officially on the issue of authenticity ‘, leaving science to examine the evidence for and against, but authorizes the cult as a relic or icon of the Passion of Jesus’. "I am convinced that on the Shroud should still encourage the pursuit of science," he says about the archbishop of Turin, Monsignor Cesare Nosiglia. The papal custodian of the sacred cloth opens the possibility ‘of new studies: "If Papa Francesco will want to’ take this path, we will do it – he says – as long as the research is conducted with honest ‘intellectual, without preconceptions and ideological assumptions a priori." Several popes, from Pius XI to John Paul II, expressed their personal conviction in favor of authenticity ‘. And ‘there’ waiting for what they will say ‘Francis Pope during his visit to Turin, scheduled on 21 and 22 June.

Photograph from Il Custode della Sindone

Categories: Science Tags:

Two Articles on the Shroud’s History

March 7, 2015 1 comment

They appear in the Italian language daily L’Indro (the links include translation into English):

image1)  Shroud: before the Middle Ages did not exist: The Mandylion is not the Shroud of Turin, which appeared only in 1355 in Lirey by Andrea Nicolotti

Google Translate says:  A much exploited in past to attribute an ancient history in a relic that is lacking is to take the hypothetical events attributed to a relic different and apply them to that, or to argue that two relics are actually the same thing. There are some stories that concern ancient images acheropite, ie ‘not made ​​by human hands’, fabrics on which it would miraculously imprinted the image of Christ. One of them is the Veronica, another is called Mandylion , ie ‘handkerchief’ or ‘towel’ of Edessa . The clip_image001legend on this handkerchief took its first steps in the V century as an appendix of another apocryphal legend and free of historical verisimilitude, already known in the previous century, which told of a correspondence exchanged between Jesus and King Abgar V of Edessa . In the text known as the ‘ Doctrine of Addai ‘it is said that King Abgar had sent his messenger to Jesus, who not only gave him a letter, but he also painted a portrait. Towards the middle of the sixth century, the legend was further modified and instead of the painted colors there was talk of a miraculous image : seeing the inability of the messenger in painting the portrait, Jesus would have washed his face and he wiped with a towel ; and on the fabric would miraculously imprinted the image of his face

image2) From the Mandylion Shroud: Reconstruction of the history of the Mandylion of Edessa in Lirey by Filippo Burgarella

Google Translate says:  To which attributes the discovery of the icon hidden for centuries in a niche of the walls of Edessa and prodigiously duplicated. A ‘icon, then, on two different media: the original on a towel folded four times (‘ rhakos tetradiplon ‘) and the copy on tile (‘ Keramion ‘). It was believed that the copy was formed by contact with the original on Keramion place to protect that niche. An Icon that in both formats ‘achiropita’, ie not painted by the hand of man, even to distinguish it from the pagan idols, facts instead of human hands (‘deadly works facta’) as reaffirm the imperial laws. Since then it was kept in the cathedral rebuilt by Emperor Justinian made. In 639 Edessa falls under Islamic rule, which saves the icon from the havoc of the Byzantine iconoclasts. From then on it is called Mandylion….

Press Release: Planned Film About Apostle Thaddeus

December 12, 2014 2 comments

Many of those who believe that the Shroud of Turin is authentic,
also believe that there is a connection between the Shroud and the Apostle Thaddeus.
The Shroud will be featured in the movie.

Walker Cable Productions (Sourced from Assyrian International News Agency), December 11, 2014.

Lorenzo Lamas, 1980s heartthrob and star of the hit series "The Renegade," is set to portray the Apostle Thaddeus in an upcoming biblical epic. The movie will be produced by Walker Cable Productions, in Association with Executive Producer Billy Haido and filmed near San Antonio, Texas. The working title of the film is "The Acts of the Apostle Thaddeus."

Lamas said, "I have worked with Walker Cable Productions in several films on the course of the last several years and it is my understanding that they will be producing a film on the Apostle Thaddeus in the near future. Based on my former association with this company and the integrity of Sam Cable and Chuck Walker as friends and film makers, I have a strong interest in being involved in this project as an actor in the title role of Thaddeus. I find the script interesting and captivating and look forward to making this project a big success. I am thrilled to be working on Thaddeus, the new WalkerCable production. These are terrific guys and a wonderful production company that I have had the pleasure of working with many, many times in the past. So, if you have the opportunity to invest in a WalkerCable production don’t hesitate. You will not regret it. So, I am excited about being a part of this Christian movie. I think it is an important time for our society to embrace the Christian faith. I am looking forward to it."

"The Acts of the Apostle Thaddeus" tells the story of the Apostle Thaddeus evangelizing Mesopotamia and founding the Assyrian Church of the East and the Armenian Church. The story is based on the writings of the early church fathers and traditions of Assyrian Christians, who are the indigenous people of Mesopotamia. Along with Lorenzo Lamas and Walker Cable Productions, the production crew will include three Assyrian Americans, and at least six Assyrian Americans will be cast in major roles. This will enable these Assyrian Americans to learn about the art of film-making and perhaps launch their careers in either film production or acting. Being people who’s heritage the film is depicting, they bring with them an additional layer of accuracy and authenticity. The Assyrian American production team are from Strategic Entertainment.

The Assyrians are currently facing terrible challenges and persecution. They face the threat of genocide in their ancestral homeland by Islamic militants groups, perhaps the most recognizable being ISIS. These terrorist groups are actively trying to destroy the ancient Christian community founded by Thaddeus and Thomas.

Stephen Missick, associate pastor of King of Saints Tabernacle in Cleveland, Texas, is writing and producing the biblical movie that will dramatize the story of one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ. The script is derived from the Bible and other ancient sources, such as the writings of the Early Church Fathers. The film is anticipated to be produced by WalkerCable, Productions of Conroe, Texas.

WalkerCable plans to begin filming in early 2015. Existing movie sets at the Alamo Village in Brackettville, Texas, as well as other areas around San Antonio, will serve as Biblical Lands.

"From the very beginning of the film industry, movies dramatizing stories from the Bible have been made. Many of these films are classics, such as Cecil B. DeMille’s "The Ten Commandments" and Charlton Heston’s "Ben-Hur." However, I want to do something totally different. I want to do something that audiences have never seen before" Missick said.

In this movie, Pastor Missick will be telling the story of the Apostle Thaddeus. According to early Church Historians, Thaddeus evangelized and established Churches in what are today Iraq, Iran and southern Turkey. The movie "The Acts of the Apostle Thaddeus" is about the Apostle Thaddeus, known among Assyrian Christians as Mar Addai, and the founding of the Assyrian Church of the East. The movie will be based on ancient Assyrian Christian literature, namely "The Doctrine of Addai" and "The Acts of the Apostle Mari." It is also based on other ancient sources, such as the writings of the early church historian Eusebius.

According to Pastor Missick, "The Acts of Thaddeus" tells the story of the origin of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Armenian Church. Pastor Missick describes the story of Thaddeus as a very fascinating one: "According to Church historians, Thaddeus was the groom at the marriage of Cana in Galilee, where Jesus turned the water into wine. There is also a connection between Thaddeus and the Shroud of Turin." The Shroud of Turin is an Icon kept in Turin, Italy that is believed to be the burial shroud of Jesus, and it bears an impression of the body of a crucified man. Many Shroud experts believe that the Shroud of Turin was known as originally known as the Image of Edessa, or the Mandylion. It said to have been brought to the Syriac king Abgar as a gift by Thaddeus. Missick says, "Many of those who believe that the Shroud of Turin is authentic, also believe that there is a connection between the Shroud and the Apostle Thaddeus. The Shroud will be featured in the movie."

Recent cinematic history has seen the resurgence of the Biblical Epic. "The Bible: TV Miniseries," "The Son of God, "as well as "Noah," have been very successful. In addition, faith-based films such as "God’s Not Dead" and "Heaven is for Real" have proven there is large an underserved market for films in the Biblical genre. Soon, Biblical epics such as "Exodus: God’s and Kings" and "A.D.: After the Bible" will arrive on both the big and small screens to serve these markets. This project is unique in that the story of Thaddeus and the founding of the Assyrian Church has never before been told in film.

For more information contact Stephen Andrew Missick,, 281-592-4104.


Categories: Movie, Press Coverage Tags:

The Shroud of Turin is not the Image of Edessa?

December 3, 2014 13 comments

the sixth-century Image of Edessa “probably never actually looked like a cloth at all.”

If you weren’t in St. Louis on Sunday morning of the conference for Jack Markwardt’s special presentation, then Modern Scholarship and the History of the Shroud of Turin is a MUST READ:

clip_image002In 1997, Professor Robin Cormack, an art historian, concluded that Wilson’s identification of the Turin Shroud with the Mandylion was “an impossible guess”, pointing to a depiction of that icon in a St. Catherine Monastery panel painting that is datable to 945-959 (Figure 1).

In 2010, Wilson acknowledged that “a fringe runs along the bottom edge where we would expect the Shroud’s fold line to be,” but he then proceeded to argue that varying portrayals of the Mandylion cancelled out one another as reliable representations of that icon and made it improbable that Byzantine artists “had actually viewed at first hand the original Image they were copying”; however, this stance constituted a rather dramatic about-face from that which he had assumed in 1998 when, in support his folded-relic hypothesis, he had contended that copies of the Mandylion, such as the now-lost image of Spas Nereditsa (Figure 2), “convey other recurring possible clues to the original’s clip_image004appearance”, such as a lattice-type decoration possibly denoting the presence of an overlay grille and an image which had been set upon a landscape-aspect cloth. If, as Wilson presently asserts, Byzantine artists did not actually view the original Mandylion in producing copies of it, then depictions that feature lattice-type decorations and landscape-aspect cloths would not necessarily be evidential of that icon having been the hypothetically folded and framed Turin Shroud.

Other unfavorable academic commentary would quickly ensue. In 1998, Professor Cameron flatly pronounced that “the Edessan image has nothing to do with the Shroud of Turin.” In 2003, Andrew Palmer, a professor of Byzantine history, in dating the Acts of Thaddeus, which alludes to an image of Jesus on cloth, to the period of 609-726 CE,undermined Wilson’s claim that it had been written in the sixth century and coincidental with the alleged historical appearance of the Edessa icon. In 2004, Professor Sebastian Brock, perhaps the world’s foremost authority on Syriac texts, declared that the Mandylion’s history provided “a very unsatisfactory ancestry for those who would like to identify the famous Turin Shroud with the Edessan Mandylion.”

In 2007, Mark Guscin, a well-known authenticist, concluded that the Sermon of Gregorius Referendarius recites “that the sweat of agony (like drops of blood) adorned the Image (of Edessa), just like blood from its side adorned the body from which the sweat had dripped, i.e. two different events at two different times,” refuting Wilson’s assertion that it referenced blood flowing from Jesus’ side wound, thereby proving that the Edessa icon had borne a full-length image of his crucified body. In that same year, Professor Irma Karaulashvili, a Georgian scholar and specialist in Syriac texts, observed that the Image of Edessa “seems to have been painted, most plausibly on wood”, citing several Syriac sources which had variously described the early Edessa icon as a quadrangle wooden tablet, a dappa (tablet), and a piece of wood.In doing so, Karaulashvili concurred with Cameron that the sixth-century Image of Edessa “probably never actually looked like a cloth at all.”

But, read on:

clip_image003Not only does the cloth of the Image of Edessa, as so depicted, strongly resemble an imaged Byzantine labarum (see Figure 19), but also the image of Jesus presented on that cloth mirrors the facial image of the Turin Shroud, absent its wounds and bloodstains, particularly with regard to their respective mouths, beards, and uneven lengths of hair (see Figure 20),and if the tenth-century Image of Edessa was, in fact, a late sixth-century Byzantine labarum, an object which modern scholars “nearly universally believe” to have been modeled upon Constantinople’s Image of God Incarnate,then that archetypal acheiropoietos image of Jesus was almost certainly the Shroud of Turin.


St. Louis Videos

November 26, 2014 17 comments

imageRuss Breault tells us on his Shroud University website:

Experts from around the world met in St. Louis, MO for the first US conference on the Shroud of Turin since 2008. Here are over 40 papers covering aspects of science, medicine, art and history. Hear and see the latest research in streaming video.

imageThe following presentations from the St. Louis Conference can now be found on YouTube.  Links to them, as shown below, are from Russ’s site:

Frederick Baltz, M.D.

A Galatian Sojourn of the Shroud of Turin? Pollen, Paul, and a Public Portrayal of Christ


Emanuela Marinelli

The Shroud and the iconography of Christ


Daniel Spicer, Ph.D. and Edward Toton, Ph.D.

Charge Separations as the Mechanism for Image Formation on the
Shroud of Turin


Robert W. Siefker

The Shroud: A Critical Summary of Observations, Data and Hypotheses Version 2.0


Barrie Schwortz

Remembering Ray Rogers: A Personal Reflections On The Man And His Work


Rev. Peter Schumacher

Study of Shroud Feature Evidence Using Video and Photogrammetric Analysis Methods


Daniel C. Scavone, Ph.D.

Constantinople Documents as Evidence of the Shroud in Edessa


Charles Mader, Ph.D.

The Raymond Rogers Computer Archive


Ivan Polverari

From the Mandylion to the Shroud


Veronica Piraccini

The prodigious painting "From the Impression of Jesus"


Pam Moon

Further evaluation of the radiocarbon samples


Flavia Manservergi and Enrico Morini

The hypothesis about the Roman flagrum: some clarifications


Paul C. Maloney

Joseph M. Gambescia, M.D. and the Position of the Feet on the Shroud of Turin. The History of an Investigation


Giulio Fanti and Roberto Maggiolo

About the Second Image of Face Detected on the Turin Shroud


Art Lind, Ph.D. and Mark Antonacci

Hypothesis that Explains the Shroud’s Unique Blood Marks and Several Critical Events in the Gospels


Kelly Kearse

A Critical (re)evaluation of the Shroud of Turin blood data: Strength of evidence in the characterization of the bloodstains

**Due to technical issues we could not capture the conclusion of this talk**


Tony Fleming

Biophotonic Hypothesis of the Turin Shroud


Guilio Fanti

A Dozen Years of Shroud Science Group


Closing Remarks

Closing Remarks; End of Conference


Russ Breault

Theology of the Shroud (7 Secrets of the Sacred Shroud)


Cesar Barta, et al.

New discoveries on the Sudarium of Oviedo


Prof. Bruno Barberis

Shroud, science and : dialogue or conflict?


Petrus Soons, M.D.

The Halo Around the Head in the Image of the Man in the Shroud

Jeffrey Skurka, P.E.

The Enigma of the apparent age of the Shroud of Turin Give the 1988 Radiocarbon Dating


David Onysko

The Shekinah Glory of the Lord and the Shroud of Turin


Robert Villarreal

Spectroscopic Analysis of Fibers from the Shroud of Turin–What Do They Mean? by Jon Schoonover, Ph.D.

The Alpha-Particle Irradiation Hypothesis: Entering John’s Gospel, Solving the Mystery of the Shroud


Andrew Silverman, M.D.

Natural, manufactured or ‘miracle’?


Most Rev. Michael Sheridan, Bishop of Colorado Springs

KEYNOTE: Science and the Mysteries of the Shroud


Barrie Schwortz

Using the Shroud of Turin Website


Raymond Schneider, P.E., Ph.D.

Dating the Shroud of Turin: Weighing All the Evidence


Robert Rucker

MCNP Analysis of Neutrons Released from Jesus’ Body in the Ressurrection


Joseph Accetta, Ph.D.

Speculations on the 14th Century Origins of the Turin Shroud


Jack Markwardt

Modern Scholarship and the History of the Shroud of Turin


Sebastien Cataldo

The Mandylion or the story of a man-made relic



Open forum regarding the future of The Shroud research


Roger Bassett

An Artist Explores The Facial Image of the Shroud of Turin


Diana Fulbright and Paolo DiLazzaro

Earthquake-induced Piezonuclear Reactions and the Inage on the Shroud of Turin: Critical remarks


Mark Antonacci

Science and Semantics


Prof. Bruno Barberis

The Future of research on the Shroud


Jack Markwardt

The Full Length History of the Shroud of Turin


A Detailed Response to The Halo Study

November 8, 2014 30 comments

In my opinion the postulated and fitted halo is more a result of wishful thinking,
than careful, meticulous and objective analysis without preconceived ideas.  — O.K.

imageO.K. has written a detailed … response to Peter Schumacher about halo study (PDF format). It warrants your attention when considering Pete’s paper. O.K. concludes:

Contrary to Peter Schumacher claims, after analysing BW photos of the Shroud I see no compelling evidence (and definitely not "beyond any reasonable doubt") for the presence of the postulated halo around Shroud face. According to my analysis there are no significant differences of intensity in the region around the face, compared to other non-image, non-burn areas (even if some regions around the face appear minimally darker than average background), not to say about any circular-shape „halo” around the face. In my opinion the postulated and fitted halo is more a result of wishful thinking, than careful, meticulous and objective analysis without preconceived ideas.

This does not mean that I reject Wilson and others theory that the Mandylion transferred to Constantinople in 944 was actually the Shroud. In my view, the analysis of documentary evidence created after the transfer leaves practically no room for other conclusion. This is another topic, however. Yet also I think that the history of the Mandylion, as both concept and physical object(s), and its relation to the Shroud is far more complex than most researchers assume and current theories do not give full answers for all questions and issues.

Categories: History, St Louis 2014 Tags:

Another St. Louis Paper Available: The Halo Study

November 8, 2014 6 comments

imageTitle: Study of Shroud Feature Evidence Using Video and Photogrammetric Analysis Methods a.k.a. “The Halo Study”

Author: Peter Schumacher

Slides:  Halo Study Presentation

The paper begins:

In December of 2013, Dr. Petrus Soons and I began a study of the Shroud of Turin with a particular focus on the area around the face of the “Man of the Shroud”. It had been observed by Dr. Soons that there appeared to be a difference in shading surrounding the face that was perhaps coincident with the Mandylion representations in artworks and that further study might provide a more conclusive determination as to actual Shroud image properties and such content in artwork representations of the Shroud.

And concludes three pages later:

“Using several Shroud images of different types and dates; various image analysis and measurement techniques; and, employing graphic overlays to compare extracted features to various artworks and Icons, it is my conclusion that the statements made by Dr. Soons are demonstrated to be accurate beyond reasonable doubt.

Thus, the Mandylion and the Shroud of Turin are on and the same. Therefore, the Shroud of Turin existed at a time in accord with the known history of the Mandylion.”

I defer to the considered works of Ian Wilson and other accomplished historians as to the impact of the results of this study, as I am not a historian.

While it is true that not everyone has a VP‐8 Image Analyzer system available to them; and, while they may not have all the images available to them that I used in this study; I am convinced that this evidence is conclusive and can be readily duplicated by anyone reasonably capable in the disciplines applied while using a variety of easily accessible tools and even some readily accessible images.

Categories: St Louis 2014 Tags:

Another Bari Conference Paper Available

November 3, 2014 Comments off

imageThe following paper by Andrea Di Genua, Emanuela Marinelli, Ivan Polverari and Domenico Repice, Judas, Thaddeus, Addai: possible connections with the vicissitudes of the Edessan and Constantinopolitan Mandylion and any research perspectives has been added to  (There is also a version in Italian*: Giuda, Taddeo, Addai: possibili collegamenti con le vicende del Mandylion edesseno-costantinopolitano ed eventuali prospettive di ricerca)

The abstract reads:

The Mandylion or image of Edessa, first mentioned in the 6th century, was a depiction of Christ’s face, described by some texts as a painting and by others as a miraculous imprint on a cloth. It is reasonable to believe that this mysterious cloth was the Shroud which is today kept in Turin, folded in such a way as to show only the face.

The protagonist of the events related to the Edessan image is Thaddeus-Addai, who is at times defined as “apostle” and at other times simply as disciple. The identification of Thaddeus Addai with the apostle Judas Thaddeus or one of the 70 (or 72) disciples remains an issue which deserves further studies; however, considering the research already conducted, a possible relation between the numerous literary witnesses and the figure of Judas Thaddeus is not to be ruled out.

The analysis of the 10th icon of the Abgar legend is intriguing:

The upper part of the diptych, on the left, shows the depiction of a saint, identifiable as Thaddeus. However, it is likely that this saint is not one of the 72 disciples, but imageexactly the apostle Judas Thaddeus, as identified in Greek books. The Western and Eastern traditions diverge substantially on this point. In the upper right side, King Abgar is represented with the facial features of Emperor Constantine VII, who in 944 moved the relic to Constantinople [61].

imageThe images of St Judas Thaddeus are very late in the West, and the saint is always represented carrying a medal depicting Jesus’ face. In Early Christianity and in the Middle Ages, the apostle Judas is only represented in the apostolic college, with no reference to the Mandylion (mosaics in Monreale, el Bawit in Egypt, etc.).

The saint depicted on the left has a face similar to that of the character who, on the right, hands over the Mandylion to King Abgar. This similarity does not prove that they are the same person, since byzantine painters used to employ patterns to reproduce the human face and, as always, painters tend to make self-portraits; this, therefore, would explain the similarity of the two and also the similarities of the saints depicted in the lower part.


*  The English version is a translation from Italian by Augusto Monacelli

Categories: Conference, History Tags:

Dan Scavone Responds to an Earlier Charles Freeman’s Article

October 28, 2014 64 comments

Yesterday, Dan wrote to me about an earlier Charles Freeman’s article. In something perhaps of a senior moment, I confused it with another criticism of the latest article, The Origins of the Shroud of Turin.  The mistake was completely mine.

He sent me a copy of the article with his thoughts ‘penned’ in here and there.  While an annotated article makes for easy study, I unfortunately should not reproduce so much of the article without permission from Charles. Besides, it would make for too long a posting. What I have done is limit myself to a number of fair use quotations. Where the gaps exist in the article, I used bracketed ellipses. Charles’ text is indented with a quotation mark.  Dan’s comments are not indented and prefixed with his first name. In a couple of instances I have edited the Dan’s comments, mostly for formatting purposes or to remove extra comments directed to me. 

I apologize for the mistake.

Charles writes in his earlier article:

When I was researching my book on medieval relics, Holy Bones, Holy Dust, How Relics Shaped the History of the Medieval World, Yale University Press, 2011, I decided to leave out the Shroud of Turin. Relic cults come and go and the Turin Shroud is very much a cult of the past fifty years, not a medieval one. The debates over its authenticity have been acrimonious and inconclusive. However, having been sent a copy of Thomas de Wesselow’s The Sign, the Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection, Viking, 2012, I had strong reservations about much of the historical evidence presented to provide an narrative history of the Shroud before 1350. Despite many years of research de Wesselow uncritically accepts much of the work of the veteran Shroud researcher Ian Wilson whose latest volume, The Shroud, Fresh Light on the 2000-year-old Mystery, Bantam Books, 2011, is used here. So much has been written about the Shroud that I am unlikely to provide much new material but I hope to clarify some issues by placing the Shroud within the wider context of medieval relics.

Now let us consider how many relics of the true cross there are in the world. An account of those merely with which I am acquainted would fill a whole volume, for there is not a church, from a cathedral to the most miserable abbey or parish church that does not contain a piece. Large splinters of it are preserved in various places, as for instance in the Holy Chapel at Paris, whilst at Rome they show a crucifix of considerable size made entirely, they say, from this wood. In short, if we were to collect all these pieces of the true cross exhibited in various parts, they would form a whole ship’s cargo.

A third part of the crown [of Thorns] is preserved at the Holy Chapel at Paris, three thorns at the Church of the Holy Cross, and a number of them at St Eustache in the same city; there are a good many of the thorns at Sienna, one at Yicenza, four at Bourges, three at Besangon, three at Port Royal, and I do not know how many at Salvatierra in Spain, two at St James of Compostella, three at Albi, and one at least in the following places: — Toulouse, Macon, Charroux in Poitiers; at Cleri, St Flour, St Maximira in Provence, in the abbey of La Salle at St Martin of Noyon, etc.’ (John Calvin, 1543)

Dan: This is precisely the WRONG approach to the Shroud. It is NOT a run-of-the-mill medieval relic. If Freeman wishes take this approach, he must first show us the numerous other shrouds claimed throughout ancient or medieval Christian history. He must then compare their realism to the Shroud. The Shroud is NOT one of a million claimed Jesus-shrouds. It stands alone and never was another made like it, whether in the middle ages or even today at the apex of technical science and artistic media.

[ . . . ]

Those trying to assess the authenticity of the Sudarium of Oviedo have to contend with a radiocarbon-14 dating apparently of c. 700 AD. The blood on it has been analysed and is of the rare AB group. This is the newest blood-group in evolutionary terms and results from the mingling of Caucasian blood-group A and Mongoloid blood-group B. At first such a mutation would have been very rare and is virtually unknown before AD 900.

Dan: Virtually??? . . . I hesitate to speak definitively or to claim perfect accuracy on matters of science, but I can recall something about AB blood-type given out by University Hematologist (and Jewish) Al Adler, He has stated EITHER that AB is most common among Jews OR that all or most denatured ancient blood alters to AB over time. Perhaps somebody can confirm Adler’s learned assertions about the blood on the Shroud.

[ . . . ]

Let us start with Edessa, the modern Sanliurfa in south-eastern Turkey, where a image of Christ was first reported by the historian Evragius Scholasticus in the 590s.

Dan: Try 2nd-4th c. Doctrine of Addai, attested by its author as derived from Edessa’s ancient, unfortunately lost, archives..

Edessa may have been Christian as early as the beginning of the third century but its legends took Christianity back further. (This was quite common. In the fourth and fifth centuries many cities ‘discovered’ a first century founding bishop, usually one who had been consecrated as such by one of the apostles.)

Dan: Many? Name 2 or 3. Can he document these last remarks? 

The Edessa legend told the story of King Abgar who had received a letter from Christ that was preserved within the city. As late as the 540s this was recorded as giving protection to Edessa but by the end of the century a new relic, an image of Christ, took its place as the ‘top’ protector relic of the city.

Dan: Try 2nd-4th c. Doctrine of Addai.

[ . . . ]

For reasons that completely escape me, Wilson claims that the Image of Edessa is none other than the Shroud of Turin.

Dan: He has simply ignored Ian’s great arguments.

[. . . ]

. . . There was a taboo in the Byzantine world about showing Christ, no less than God, of course, dead.

Dan: ???? I’ve never heard of this.

[ . . . ]

An even more bizarre explanation comes when Wilson tackles Byzantine art. Seventy years ago a Frenchman, Paul Vignon, noted that the bearded face on the Turin Shroud has some of the characteristics of Byzantine art. All kinds of measuring was done and some enthusiasts found as many as sixty resemblances. This is all interesting but Wilson goes on to make the absurd suggestion that this was because Byzantine art was born from the Image of Edessa, also known to Wilson as the Turin Shroud! Wilson makes some vague points about a new period in art at this time and finds a reference to two wandering Georgian monks with contacts with Edessa in the 530s who may have painted images. His key argument is the appearance in iconography of Christ with a beard happens just at this time. Yet, even if Wilson claims, against Belting who prefers a date fifty years later, that the Image of Edessa was known from the 540s, Byzantine art was well under way by then. So we have the earliest bearded Christ in the catacomb of Commodilla in Rome in about 390 and then a fine central image of a bearded Christ in the church of San Pudenziana of c. 405 (below). Even a brief glance at a standard history of early Christian art would have shown Wilson the emergence of these fully fronted bearded portraits in the fifth century.

Dan:  I have no comments about Freeman’s last paragraphs.  They are so "not applicable" to the information that we really have about the Shroud. 

A particularly impressive example comes from the Church of San Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna which is securely dated to 500 (illustrated below). So Byzantine images of a fully frontal bearded Christ are known from long before the date Wilson gives for his copying of the image of the Turin Shroud. So if the face on the Turin Shroud does have so many resemblances to Byzantine art then, it seems to me, that it may well be an excellent example of . . . Byzantine art!

Dan: He has confused which was the original (the Shroud) and which was the copy (Byzantine art)!!!  Also he has not paid attention to the "tetradiplon" reference to the image in the Acts of Thaddaeus. And [seems to be uninformed] of Ian’s "claims."

[ . . . ]

It is not known what happened to the Blachernae Shroud. The Chapel was very vulnerable as it was exposed on the shoreline. The Hodegetria was saved from the rapacious crusaders but the shroud seems to have disappeared. There is a hint in one source . . .

Dan: Much more than a hint.

. . . that it may have gone to Athens and some argue . . .

Dan: NO!!! I have proved with documents

. . . that it was the shroud found at Besancon which is first recorded in 1205, a year after the Crusade.

Dan: Yes!!! And it is firmly documented as coming from Constantinople to Besancon to Geoffroy de Charny. From there on the TS is documented through it possession by Geoffroy de Charny.

Most accounts suggest that this was then lost in a fire in 1350.

Dan: NOT True. In the first place, Freeman’s “most accounts” needs some names. And “suggest” (???) is so “escapist” as a wannabe “fact” that it may be discarded without further comment.

[ . . . ]

If Wilson’s thesis that this linen cloth was the Mandylion was not already in enough trouble, he still has a major issue to tackle, the history of the Shroud from AD 30 to the second half of the sixth century when the Edessa Image aka to Wilson the Turin Shroud is first recorded in Edessa. It is a long period, much more challenging than filling in a mere 150 years. 560 years from today would take us back to the Middle Ages! Of course, Wilson is up to the challenge. He has dug up a document called The Doctrine of Addai. This may date from the early fifth century

Dan: Freeman [seems to be] inventing dates hoping that uninformed readers will go along

[ . . . ]

When Hannan, the keeper of the archives, saw that Jesus spake thus to him, by virtue of being the king’s painter, he took and painted a likeness of Jesus with choice paints, and brought with him to Abgar the king, his master. And when Abgar the king saw the likeness, he received it with great joy, and placed it with great honour in one of his palatial houses.’

Dan: And he was healed. Unless this is a lie, it was not a human “painting done with “choice paints” that healed him but the strange–looking, misunderstood, faint face on the Shroud of Jesus.

[ . . . ]

So where did the Mandylion end up? I would suggest that it lies, folded tetradiplon, in the casket below.

Dan: “Suggest” ??? He has not proved anything that might empower Freeman to“suggest” some opinion or other – of his own.

New Paper: The Lirey Toga

October 19, 2014 10 comments

“poets, chroniclers, knights and others who were involved tell their own stories
and, in so doing, illuminate this time in history, the Hundred Years War,
when a most extraordinary and important story [of the shroud] unfolds”

imageDavid Day writes:

I would like to draw your attention to a narrative I have recently placed online called: The Lirey Toga.

This is the result of research into my ancestors, the De Noyers, and their involvement with the Holy Shroud, later known as the Shroud of Turin, when it was in France during the Hundred Years War.

While carrying out this work many links came to light between the Holy Shroud and Joan of Arc culminating in a remarkable conclusion concerning the Holy Shroud itself.

It is interesting, well written and informative. I am reminded of Daniel Scavone’s several papers in which he argues that emerging knowledge in Western Europe about the Holy Shroud in Constantinople, the Mandylion, inspired the legends of the Holy Grail.  Some papers, I think,  to read once again on an autumn Sunday afternoon.

A you-should-get-the-point sample from about midpoint:

. . . Does Joan of Arc ever set eyes on the Holy Shroud? Therein lies a Rembrandt or
a Van Dyke painting. Reluctantly, I believe the answer has to be that she did not since such an occasion would, without doubt, have been recorded.

However, apart from such fascinating conjecture, the proximity of the Holy Shroud to Joan’s birthplace of Domrémy lingers in the mind and I begin to wonder if there are other links between the Shroud and her life. . . .

David’s paper sort of draws to a conclusion around page 40 with this:

The essential features of the Arthurian saga, containing both historical and fictional elements, have been fulfilled in the life of Joan of Arc. All have become real: Excalibur and Joan of Arc’s sword from the church of Sainte Catherine of Fierbois. There are the several Avallon links via the families associated with caring for the Holy Shroud and, especially, Joan’s riding out of Avallon on the way from Vaucouleurs to Chinon. There are the dramatic similarities between Lançelot and Alençon. There is the route of military confrontation followed by both Joan of Arc and Arthur along the Loire with both ending up in Burgundy. Furthermore, both are betrayed. What Arthur does in history and fiction, Joan of Arc does in reality. I fully believe that her realisation of Galahad makes the Holy Shroud, with which she has many links, the equivalent in her life of the Holy Grail. This being the case, since all the other main features of the Arthurian saga have been realised, the Holy Grail itself is now actualised in the form of the Holy Shroud. In other words it too becomes real. This means it is, truly, the Holy Shroud of Jesus Christ.

Okay, one might believe so. But then:

imageThis immensely holy item, the Holy Shroud, has here been identified with the Holy Grail. Is this acceptable? Does the Holy Grail itself contain information that could provide the answer to this question? Here is something interesting. What is to be found in the twelve letters that constitute the three words, The Holy Grail? One word that can be made if the letters are reconstituted is, LIREY. Among the remainder of letters a second word stands out and the letters are in the correct order. The word is, TOGA, defined, and so similar to the Shroud, as a long piece of cloth worn wrapped around the body. The Holy Grail transmutes itself into the Lirey Toga, a garment worn by a living Roman at the time of Christ. How appropriate considering Christ’s miraculous Resurrection.

Do read it. You will learn a lot about and from the . . .

poets, chroniclers, knights and others who were involved tell their own stories and, in so doing, illuminate this time in history, the Hundred Years War, when a most extraordinary and important story unfolds.

A Special Study Day: People With Different Takes on the Shroud

October 17, 2014 8 comments

imageWhat follows is a Google Translation of an announcement for a day of talks, "L’enigma della Sindone" to be held at the University of Rome on October 30, 2014.  This is being sponsored by the Chemistry Department.

Note carefully the objective of this event. Note, too, some of the names familiar to readers of this blog, like Luigi Garlaschielli, Paolo Di Lazzaro and Andrea Nicolotti, people with very different takes on the shroud.


Science and history are wondering about the mysterious Shroud of Turin

Study day with the Round Table is open

Thursday, October 30, 2014 – 8:30 to 18:00 hours

Parravano Hall, Department of Chemistry

Sapienza University of Rome

Objectives of the event

  • The event takes place before the new Exposition of the Shroud in 2015 and soon after the meeting of Bari and St. Louis dedicated to it: a look at the present thinking of the future steps.
  • Discuss the different aspects that the Shroud takes the observer assigned and not assigned.
  • Analytically examine how science and research have addressed the problem.
  • Evaluate the reflections cultural, religious, historical problem.

Information and reservations

  • The event is open to all with free admission.

  • Participation in the buffet and the purchase of the DVD with the recording of the event is € 25.00.

  • Reservations must be sent to the email sends e-mail) by Saturday, October 25, 2014.

  • The conference will be video recorded.


08:30 to 09:00
Registration for the Workshop

09:15 to 09:30
prof. Aldo Lagana, Director of Department of Chemistry
prof. Luigi Frati, Rector of Sapienza
prof. Giancarlo Ruocco, Pro Rector Research Sapienza

9:30 to 9:45
Introduction to the study day
prof. Luigi Campanella, Sapienza University of Rome, Chairman

09:45 to 10:15
The Shroud and the problem of "reproduction"
prof. Luigi Garlaschielli, University of Pavia

10:15 to 10:45
Characteristics of the Shroud image and attempts to play the photochemical
dr. Paolo Di Lazzaro, Enea, home to Frascati

10:45 to 11:00
Space for questions and short questions

11:00 to 11:30

11:30 to 12:00
The translation of the Mandylion from Edessa to Constantinople
prof. Philip Burgarella, University of Calabria

12:00 to 12:30
Shroud history and pseudo-history: gleanings of methodology
prof. Andrea Nicolotti, University of Turin

12:30 to 12:45
Space for questions and short questions

12:45 to 13:45
Lunch break by the organization

14:00 to 17:00
Open round table with four speakers: What stimuli and what prospects towards the solution of a historic dilemma.

Moderator chairman prof. Luigi Campanella

The panel discussion will be introduced by four short presentations of the speakers at the preliminary discussion.
Applications to be submitted must be made ​​in writing before the start of the afternoon session.
Each questionante has 3 minutes to explain the reasons for his request.

17:00 to 17:30

The Metamorphosis and Manipulation of a Legend?

September 26, 2014 4 comments

imageAndrea Nicolotti’s book, From the Mandylion of Edessa to the Shroud of Turin: The Metamorphosis and Manipulation of a Legend (Art and Material Culture in Medieval and Renaissance Europe) has finally been published in English. It was available in Italian in 2011. Andrea, who has commented in this blog on occasion, considers this to be a “revised and augmented edition.”

The price for the Hardcover edition is $124.00 at Amazon. The list price is $142.00.  (Please note that Amazon is reporting that the book has not been released even though the publication date is September 15th. Nonetheless, Amazon is accepting orders at this time).

A limited preview of the first chapter and the conclusion from the last chapter is available at The Table of Contents and Index are also provided.

The whet your appetite here are three paragraphs from the conclusion:

There is not a shred of evidence that the Mandylion of Edessa was a long shroud or that it showed the entire body of the crucified and wounded figure of Christ. Those who argue for the shared identity of the Shroud of Turin and the Mandylion of Edessa have based their arguments on evidence that cannot withstand close scrutiny. In order to argue for the authenticity of the Turinese relic, some have gone to great lengths. In so doing, they have approached the changing nature of the legends concerning this relic too simplistically. More-over, they have used evolving legends as if they were trustworthy historical sources, which is utterly unacceptable.

It is clear that the ultimate aim of the theory that identifies the Shroud with the Mandylion is to demonstrate that the Shroud of Turin has existed and can be documented since antiquity. But the first historical documents that mention the Shroud date to the fourteenth century, and the date obtained by radiocarbon dating places it between 1260 and 1390 CE. The history of the Shroud is the topic of my next book, but it is important to clarify that even if the Shroud was authentic and dated from the first century, it is a completely different object than the Edessean image.

We can therefore end this analysis by quoting the 1786 opinion of the Marquis Giovanni de Serpos, in regard to the reliability of that “sweet illusion” and the “birth of a devout imagination” in the legend of Abgar: “Everything so far narrated must be counted as mere fable.”

Order it today and Amazon will ship it the minute it becomes available. I look forward to reading this book and his next book on the history of the Shroud.

Navy Seals at the Battle of Gettysburg? A Picture of the Shroud in 1036?

June 12, 2014 150 comments

If it is the shroud perhaps it explains the poker holes

imageIs this what is now known as the Shroud of Turin being carried through the streets of Constantinople.?

(Click on the picture for a larger view)

Pam Moon writes:

. . .

Last year I spent a lot of time with the Madrid Skylitzes and I wondered if you would be interested in the image which doesn’t fit at all.

It is one of the finest images in the Madrid Skylitzes and the one every google search picks up.

But it is the equivalent of of putting a modern day company of Navy Seals into a picture of the Battle of Gettysburg. 

The army in the image is the Varangian Guard (pg 16/17) It doesn’t fit – it is 160 years out of date. 

Is the image actually of the Shroud in the 1036 exposition through the streets of Constantinople which has been redacted by a later copyist to make it fit a wrong part of history?

If it is perhaps it explains the poker holes on the Shroud?

Pam has put together a paper, The Shroud of Turin in Constantinople? Paper I: An analysis of the L Shaped markings on the Shroud of Turin and an examination of the Holy Mandylion and Holy Shroud in the Madrid Skylitzes .   Take the time to read it. It is quite fascinating.

Anticipating the Conference: Dan Scavone on Evidence of the Shroud in Edessa

June 11, 2014 36 comments

Daniel Scavone  | 12-Oct-2014  |  10:00-10:30 am


In 944 Edessa’s cloth-image of Jesus arrived in Constantinople.  It remained there until the 13th century.  Of the Edessan sources, the most important was the 6th c. Acts of Thaddaeus, which attests to a faint image of Jesus’ face on a cloth imposed during His ministry.  Importantly, the cloth was referred to as a sindon tetradiplon, literallya “burial cloth folded in eight layers.”

In Constantinople, the Edessa cloth-image was named, described, and/or depicted in art in at least 17 documents.  Some writers saw only the face of Jesus visible on the folded cloth (Mandylion).  Other eyewitnesses describe blood and full body on the cloth.  My study of these texts provides strong evidence that the imaged cloth from Edessa to Constantinople was the cloth known today as the Shroud of Turin.

Click on the title to read the full abstract. Click here for the conference home page.

Picture: (Click to Enlarge) Surrender of the Mandylion of Image of Edessa by the inhabitants of Edessa to the Byzantine parakoimomenos Theophanes, unknown 13th century author – Chronography of John Skylitzes, cod. Vitr. 26-2, folio 131a, Madrid National Library.

From Wikimedia:  The official position taken by the Wikimedia Foundation is that "faithful reproductions of two-dimensional public domain works of art are public domain". This photographic reproduction is therefore also considered to be in the public domain.

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