In December 2011 scientists at Italy’s National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Development ENEA announced that their series of tests demonstrated the image on the shroud could, in their opinion, only have been created by "some form of electromagnetic energy" such as a flash of light at short wavelength. Professor Paolo Di Lazzaro, the lead researcher, indicated in an e-mail interview that ‘….it appears unlikely a forger may have done this image with technologies available in the Middle Ages or earlier’, but their study does not mean the Shroud image could only have been created by the flash of a miraculous resurrection, contrary to how the story was presented in the media, especially on the Web. Prominent skeptic Joe Nickell, however, is not impressed with the news. He indicates the latest findings is nothing new despite ‘dressed up in high-tech tests’ and don’t prove much of anything.
In December 2011 physicist Giulio Fanti published a critical compendium of the major hypotheses regarding the formation of the body image on the shroud. Fanti stated that "none of them can completely explain the mysterious image". Fanti then considered corona discharge as the most probable hypothesis regarding the formation of the body image.
Here is a list of the citations for the above paragraphs:
163. Squires, Nick (December 19, 2011). "The Turin Shroud could not have been faked, say scientists". montrealgazette.com. Montreal Gazette. http://www.montrealgazette.com/technology/Turin+Shroud+could+have+been+faked+scientists/5883796/story.html. Retrieved December 23, 2011.
164. ^ http://opac.bologna.enea.it:8991/RT/2011/2011_14_ENEA.pdf (in italian)
165. ^ a b Boyle, Alan (December 23, 2011). "Was Holy Shroud created in a flash? Italian researchers resurrect claim". msnbc.com. http://cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2011/12/22/9636065-was-holy-shroud-created-in-a-flash-italian-researchers-resurrect-claim. Retrieved December 23, 2011.
166. ^ a b G. Fanti, Hypotheses regarding the Formation of the Body Image: A Critical Compendium, The Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 55(6) 060507 (nov-dec. 2011), abstract