These are early days, but I’m (how shall we say?) quietly confident.
— Colin Berry
No wine before its time. And don’t read Colin Berry’s posts in his blog before they have aged for a few days to match his unorthodox posting style. Now is the time. Fine wine indeed if you like something acidic. Give it time to breath. That doesn’t mean, of course, that you or I will like it. It is time to read Might this be how the Turin Shroud was faked, using medieval alchemy?
Colin writes in his blog:
Here it is folks: the best I can offer after more than 3 years of almost non-stop experimentation : Model 9 ("the nitric acid model").
Alternative name (afterthought, added 25th April): this new technique produces what might be called a "tactile chemograph". Maybe there was only one ever produced (the image that we now call the Turin Shroud). The tactile chemograph may be thought of as a forerunner of the photograph. (In both instances, one produces a latent image from a real person without harming them in any way, one that can then be developed in a bath (or vapour chamber) with the appropriate developing chemicals.
There was the moment that Thibault Heimburger asked Colin to “explain in detail the advantages of your new hypothesis with regard to your ‘old’ scorch hypothesis.” Colin provided ten points. You should read them all. Here are two to temp you:
6. The technique allows for blood (or blood substitute) to be applied at the same time as body-imprinting medium, provided the blood or substitute stays red in nitric acid fumes (real blood does not – it quickly turns a brown colour). Blood would have been applied after. i.e. directly on top of the gooey imprinting medium to account for there being no body image under Shroud “blood”.
8. When applied to new linen, the technique has a side-effect that would be seen as a bonus – artificial ageing of the linen. Centuries later, pro-authenticity chemists and others would be delighted to find there was less potential vanillin and more mechanical weakness than would be expected of medieval linen a mere 700 years old.
Jumping to the conclusion (maybe, for there is no predicting with Colin):
The Turin Shroud. was this the world’s first and only tactile chemograph (think of it as a primitive ‘photographic’ negative, except for one tiny detail. Neither light not any other kind of elect6romagnetic radiation played any part in its production. It relied on the human touch (well, gentle massage actually).
What finally persuaded this blogger to abandon thermal scorching, and move to liquid (or semi-liquid) imprinting? It was that paper that Joe Accetta PhD presented at the St.Louis gathering, 2014, in which he propsoed that the TS image had been produced by woodblock imprinting. Up till that time I’d always been sceptical re the use of any kind of liquid imprinting medium, considering that would risk a reverse-side image. But I concocted my own equivalent of Joe’s "oak gall" imprinting ink, in which the iron salts probably have a mordant action, as well as creating the ink by reaction with plant tannins. Here’s an image produced, substituting tannin-rich pomegranate rind extract for oak galls, supplemented with iron (II)sulphate.
That ‘wet’ image was as good, if not better than anything produced by scorching. Yes. there was some reverse-side penetration, but might that not be minimized by suitable modification of technique, or simply by using thicker linen (and the TS linen IS thick, as Hugh Farey has observed).
Once liquid imprinting was permitted as an option, then a host of new experimental options were opened up. Thanks Joe Accetta. You weaned me of those thermal scorches (but they were useful in other ways, showing that ANY negative imprint can model certain key features of the TS, notably negative image and 3D-enhancibility). Models in science do not need to tick all boxes simultaneously. One can run different models in parallel, each earning its keep in one or other respect, while patiently waiting for the day when the super-model suggests itself, one that combines the best features of its precursors, not only mine, but those of Garlaschelli and Accetta in particular. Hugh Farey and Adrie van der Hoeven added some useful and thought-provoking grist to the mill too, though whether they and the previous two would approve of the end-result is another matter.
Might tactile chemography prove to be the super-model? We shall see. These are early days, but I’m (how shall we say?) quietly confident.
Oh oh! You can’t put the cork back in, can you?
If new carbon 14 tests show similar results the Jacksons and Fantis of Sindone World will be doing a lot of telling us that radiation from the resurrection changed the date. There will be new explanations. Look at what happened between 1988 and 2015. The Turin Shroud is more real today than it was 25 years ago.
Well, it turns out that Meccanica, an International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, has retracted several articles in which Carpinteri was involved. Reason given:
This article has been withdrawn by the Publisher and the Society in agreement with the Editor-in-Chief due to conflict of interest reasons. In a commitment to scientific integrity we decided to withdraw the article as the editorial process had been compromised.
They didn’t know that? Read Full Disclosure.
More likely, it has something to do with the St. Louis Conference paper, Earthquake-Induced Piezonuclear Reactions and the Image on the Shroud of Turin: Critical Remarks by Diana Fulbright and Paolo Di Lazzaro. Here is an abstract from the conference site:
Neutrons produced by hypothetical “piezonuclear” fission reactions have been proposed as causative for the formation of the image on the Shroud of Turin1. According to this hypothesis, compressing solids can provoke nucleus-splitting reactions without emitting γ-rays or producing nuclear waste. This involves an exponentially accelerated decay rate of a thorium isotope, according to results presented in 2. The decay rate of the isotope 228Th in a water solution, compared with its natural decay rate, is said to be increased by a factor of 104 when exposed to cavitation, i.e., sound waves at 20 kHz and 100W, as might be produced by a very high-magnitude earthquake. This claim has been disputed as not substantiated by the experimental evidence presented.
The Shroud image is said to have been formed by a hypothetical flux of thermal neutrons directed into the Shroud, which in turn interacts with atmospheric nitrogen to generate both protons (which are absorbed by the linen cellulose, producing a superficial coloration) and additional isotopes of 14C, captured by cellulose of the linen cloth, as proposed by Rinaudo4, thus skewing the radiocarbon dating of 1988.
However, Rinaudo posited the body as the source of the neutron-proton flux, producing the very superficial image on the inside of the cloth. On the contrary, in the piezonuclear ssion hypothesis, the source of neutrons are rocks of the walls of the tomb. Therefore the flux of neutrons (and of secondary protons) is directed to the outside surface of the linen cloth. As a consequence, the image would be on the outside of the cloth, in contradiction with the detailed results of STuRP studies.
The unique earthquakes in the Gospel of Matthew (27:51, 28:2), absent from the other Gospels, are subsumed into the piezonuclear hypothesis. But they are completely unattested by any known independent historical source. References to earthquakes at the time of the Crucifixion and/or the Resurrection, such as attributed to the unknown historian Thallos, The Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea and Dante’s Divine Comedycan scarcely be considered to support historical authenticity, as their source is none other than the Gospel of Matthew.
Moreover, image formation via the neutron flux-proton interaction hypothesis is said to have required an earthquake of 8 – 9 ML magnitude1 “which “should have razed Jerusalem to the ground”5, and could not have gone unnoticed by contemporary or later historians – i.e., Pliny, Josephus, Philo, Tacitus, not to mention the letters of Paul or Acts, which portrays the apostles openly teaching in the Temple (3:1 ff.) following the death of Jesus.
The premise that the earthquakes of Matthew may somehow have been involved in formation of the Shroud body image may be untenable, as neither occurred, according to the Evangelist, when the shroud could have been in contact with the body.
I was checking out some of the videos and stories related to the opening of the exhibition. In one video, Archbishop Nosiglia said the church is not against new testing. One of the new articles quoted Pope John Paul II in 1998 saying continued research should be done. I think researchers have done their part in continuing research but one can only do so much with the 1978 data. I know the Pope has a lot of things on his plate but if Popes and Archbishops are giving lip service to research/new testing, he really needs to reevaluate the role of the Shroud in the church. If new testing did not disprove the authenticity, it could bring a lot more people to Christianity. There have been expositions in 1998, 2000, 2010 and the current one. A tremendous amount of time, energy and money have been spent in each of those. It would have been nice if some of that time, energy and money could have been put in another multi-disciplinary study. We now have Barberis saying another C-14 test should be done. As we saw at the St. Louis conference, there is a lot of debate among researchers whether it should be done. If it is done, a lot would obviously depend on the background study and the various entities involved in the testing. Heaven forbid if it would be anything like the 88 testing.
In referring to Barberis, Joe is, I think, referring to SHROUD: TRACES OF BLOOD FROM THE "CARBON-14": WHAT DOES SCIENCE SAY, a Google Translation of an article, SINDONE, DALLE TRACCE EMATICHE AL "CARBONIO-14": COSA DICE LA SCIENZA in Famiglia Cristiana.
I favor retesting. Bill Meacham (The Rape of the Shroud) continues to advocate for it. Some people believe that the shroud cannot be tested accurately and oppose such testing. One reason: they think that a resurrection miracle changed the ratio of carbon 14 to carbon 12. Maybe. But how do you test for that?
Began an initial period of organizational and preparatory work that enabled him to begin work on 20 June 2002. It began with the unwrapping of the patches, and then with that of Holland cloth. With the removal of the patches was noted that the amount of material semicombusto was greater than the assumed one. Then it was provided to collect and catalog all the material, indicating for each sample the precise site of collection. Even the filaments are not strictly bound to the sheet were collected and cataloged but were not made cuts or burns on the edges or on the edges so as not to affect the textile does not compromise. At the end of this phase of work, the Shroud, unstitched cloth from Holland, was later turned over to gain access to the back of the sheet. It was noted that the figure of the man of the Shroud was not visible on the back while the bloodstains were. Was provided then perform a series of photographs to document this side not normally accessible. Was effected then a detection scanners. The scanner was brought on different positions by means of a translation system with mobile bridge able to reach all positions on the Shroud without dragging effects. On a limited number of positions, corresponding to particular sites (areas with bloodstains, areas corresponding to image areas with strinature) previously identified on the normally visible, some withdrawals were made by the method of adhesive tapes Method, widely tested and used in campaign of studies carried out by STURP in 1978 . In the same positions were made some spectroscopic measurements (UV-VIS spectroscopy for reflectance and fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy). Finally were made of photographic recording using a special microscope whose objective could be brought (by means of the usual mobile bridge) on individual sites previously identified. All data collected, the samples taken, photographs, scans and all the carbonaceous material and semicombusto, properly cataloged and provided minutes of collection were delivered to the Papal Custodian, at the time the Card. Severino Poletto). At the end it was provided to stitch the Shroud on a new linen cloth (also of Dutch origin) in order to provide the necessary support to the mechanical tarp badly damaged by fire in 1532 and not in a position to be able to exist without adequate external support. The whole was placed on the appropriate bed sliding and suitable to be housed in the display case of preservation. The project was completed July 23, 2002.
(bold emphasis mine)
Yes, maybe. But what if Rogers is wrong about “a thin layer of carbohydrate impurities”?
A reader writes in response to the Interview with Interview with Paolo Di Lazzaro:
Scientifically speaking, this is not the main objection we can have concerning the coloring results obtained by Di Lazzaro and his team. No. According to a Shroud specialist like Ray Rogers (who knew one or two things about radiation and its effects on linen fibers), the main objection would be that it is virtually impossible for a mechanism like a burst of UV light (or any other burst of intense radiation like heat, proton, neutron, etc.) to only color a thin layer of carbohydrate impurities that is resting on some linen fibers without, at the same time, coloring the first wall of those fibers and leaving distinct damages there. For Rogers, this kind of coloring result that would affect and color not only the impurity coating but also the fiber itself IS NOT the same kind of result as what he observed on the samples he took in the image area of the Shroud.
Again, we can say that even if something can look like the image on the Shroud, it is [erroneous] to say so if the results obtained do not match with ALL the chemical and physical properties of the image (or in this case, of the color). In the case of Di Lazzaro’s results, if we believe the expert point of view of Rogers, they don’t, even though the coloring results he got are looking quite similar (at first sight) to the color on the Shroud.
I’m afraid science has to look at a much milder process (probably natural and coming from the highly traumatized corpse that was inside the cloth) to explain once and for all the image on the Shroud.
Yes, maybe. But what if Rogers is wrong about “a thin layer of carbohydrate impurities”?
Caption for image at Wikipedia:
Phase contrast microscopic view of image-bearing fiber from the Shroud of Turin. The carbohydrate layer is visible along top edge. The lower-right edge shows that coating is missing. The coating can be scraped off or removed with adhesive or diimide.
In the website of our laboratory is the web page where you can find all the results,
works, publications, interviews and films related to the Shroud studies conducted at ENEA.
From a Google translation of an interview conducted by Maria Margherita Peracchino in L’Indro, Shroud: the image impossible according to the ENEA: Interview with Paolo Di Lazzaro, head of the Laboratory of the Center Excimer ENEA Frascati:
Among the most recent studies, there is one made by the Laboratory of the Center Excimer ENEA Frascati. "Our laboratory has tried a new approach," says Paolo Di Lazzaro, head of the Laboratory of ENEA Frascati, "trying to play a Shroud-like coloration of linen fabrics through photochemical effects induced by ultraviolet light, which in principle has the characteristics needed to get at least two of the characteristics of the Shroud image, which is the low temperature of formation and coloring extremely superficial, limited to a thin film sub micrometer. "
Lazarus, we explain the work you have carried out on the Shroud and the fundamental results to which you have come?
Since 2005 the Laboratory of Excimer ENEA Frascati Centre carried out a large number of irradiation of ultraviolet laser light on linen fabrics woven in the years between 1930 and 1950 never used and never washed with detergent, in order to avoid the presence of bleaching chemicals that can alter the optical properties of the tissue. By radiation means sending laser pulses on the fabric, which alter the chemical bonds of the same tissue, which in turn changes its surface properties and appearance. The main purpose of irradiations was to verify whether an intense ultraviolet radiation was able to create a linen coloration with characteristics similar to those of the body image on the Shroud of Turin. After numerous irradiation and with great difficulty we managed to find the right combination of laser parameters (pulse duration, intensity, energy density and number of shots) that allows a color-like shroud. We got a shade of color, a superficial staining, an effect of alternating colored fibers and not colored, the negativity of the image that are similar to those measured on the Shroud of Turin by STURP. Based on our thirty years of experience of irradiation and interaction of light with many materials, was the first time that we have found a range of values so critical to get the desired effect: during the irradiation of the fabric is in fact sufficient to vary by a few percentage points one only the laser parameters mentioned above to stop getting any coloration of linen. Really amazing.
In addition to the experiments of laser irradiation and coloration of linen, more recently you have faced the problem of different written and invisible images that some scholars fail to highlight after a digital processing of the contrast and brightness of the photographs of the Shroud.
Yes. And our results suggest that in some cases (the alleged written, the alleged face on the back) is probably illusory perceptual effects related to the phenomena of psychological Gestalt and pareidolia well known to scholars of human perception and optical illusions. Our results have been presented in detail in several articles published in international scientific journals of great prestige and impact, and therefore are available to all interested scientists to reproduce our results and maybe get better. In the website of our laboratory is the web page where you can find all the results , works, publications, interviews and films related to the Shroud studies conducted at ENEA.